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Cantata BWV 163
Nur jedem das Seine!
Discussions - Part 4

Continue from Part 3

Discussions in the Week of November 1, 2015 (4th round)

William Hoffman wrote (November 2, 2015):
Cantata BWV 163: 'Nur jedem das Seine' Intro. & Trinity 23 Chorales

For the 23rd Sunday after Trinity with its Gospel, Matthew 12:15-22, Parable of the Pharisees and paying tribute to Caesar, deals with the late Trinity Time themes of faith and doubt, truth and deception, and the last things, especially emphasized in Bach’s Cantata 163, “Nur jedem das Seine!” (Only to each his due!, based on Leviticus 25:13, “And in the year of this jubilee ye shall return every man unto his possession” (KJV). The musical sermon repeated from Weimar with its basic mirror form uses the court poet Salomo Franck’s emphasis on pietistic devotional sentiments in the intimate style of the solo cantata.

The engaging text, however, leads Bach to create some special forms and musical techniques rarely found in his music. Of special note are the musical devices of the chorale troped dance-style duet (no. 4) preceded by an introductory recitative duet that develops into a striking arioso with canonic imitation. Also of special interest is the rare (in Weimar) opening tenor da-capo aria with its motivic repetition of the Old Testament paraphrase of the injunction regarding Caesar, and the vocal, instrumental imitation of the motive. Not to be outdone is the bass recitative-aria pairing (nos. 2 and 3) with chromaticism and text painting in the recitative and the use of concerto-like contrapuntal devices in the obbligato two cellos in the aria. For the concluding chorale, Bach returns to a late Trinity Time favorite hymn text, Wo soll ich fliehen hin (Where should I flee from here?) by Johann Heermann (1630).1

Trinity 23 Cantatas and Chorales2

<<The use of personal chorales and pietistic devotional sentiments strengthens the New Testament teachings of rendering unto Caesar (Mat. 11:15-22) while avoiding earthly corruption in all three Bach cantatas for the 23rd Sunday after Trinity in Leipzig: BWV 163, 139 and 15. The initial common element, beginning in Weimar, was the use of the personal chorale, developed by Johann Heermann and perfected by Paul Gerhardt, whose hymns were Bach’s favorites, as well as various thematic Jesus Hymns and texts of songwriters Christian Friedrich Witt, Johann Christoph Rube, and Johann Jakob Rambach.

The texts and corresponding musical treatment of Cantatas BWV 163, 139, and 52 provide distinctive perspectives on this Sunday’s biblical teachings, within a cautionary pietistic framework of the Last Times of the Christian and the Church year at hand in the last Sundays of Trinity Time:
+Solo SATB Cantata BWV 163, “Nur jedem das Seine” (Only to each his due) (Weimar, 11/24/1715; repeated in Leipzig 10/31/1723), emphasizes distinguishing between false earthly and true spiritual values. The Leipzig date was also the Feast of the Reformation. Cantata 163 was presented during the early main service at the St. Thomas Church, before the sermon on the Gospel, Matthew 12:15-22, Parable of the Pharisees and paying tribute the Caesar), by the Pastor Christian Weise (1671-1736), says Martin Petzoldt in Bach Commentary, Vol. 1, Trinity Sundays.3
+Chorale Cantata BWV 139, “Wohl dem der sich auf seinen Gott . . . kann verlassen” (“Well for him who himself on his God . . . can depend) repeated (Leipzig, 11/12/1724; 1732-35; 1744-47), deals with personal trust in God (latest materials, BCML Discussions, Part 4 [November, 9, 2014]
+ Solo Soprano Cantata BWV 52, “Falsche Welt, dir trau ich nicht” (False worlds, thee trust I not) (Leipzig, 11/24/1726), focuses on the false world’s deceptions (latest materials, BCML Discussions, Part 4[(January 12, 2014],

Lutheran Church Year, Readings for the Twenty Third Sunday after Trinity: Epistle: Philippians 3: 17-21 Follow not carnal things, as many do; Gospel: Matthew 22: 15-22 The Pharisees and the tribute to Caesar. For complete texts, see BCW (The German text is that of Luther’s translation published in 1545, the English is the Authorised (King James) Version 1611).

The Introit Psalm for the 23rd Sunday after Trinity in Bach’s time was Psalm 85, Benedixisti, Domine (Lord, thou has been favorable unto thy land, KJV), says Petzoldt (Ibid.: 631). He describes Psalm 85 as a “Prayer for God’s Help and Welfare in All Hours.” Bach used Psalm 85:10, “Mercy and truth have met together; Righteousness and peace have kissed” in the soprano aria of Cantata 120. The full text is found at>>

Weimar Chamber Music Character

Overall, Cantata 163 “has something of the chamber music character of many of the Weimar cantatas,” says David L. Humphreys in the Oxford Composer Companions: J. S. Bach.4 Bach transforms Franck’s text into a special design with various musical devices in each of the first five movements: The opening tenor recitative is a somewhat unusual (for Weimar) da-capo aria, says Humphreys (Ibid.), in which the opening phrase, a paraphrase of Jesus famous Gospel injunction (Mat. 22:21), “to render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s,” repeated as a motto motif 12 times with dense vocal and instrumental imitation.

A bass recitative follows with chromaticism and the “final six bars, a fearful question [Ach! aber ach! ist das nicht schlechtes Geld? (Ah, but alas! is it not worthless currency?)], are marked by successive dissonances,” observes Tadashi Isoyama in the Masaaki Suzuki BIS recordings of the complete secular cantatas.5 This leads to the bass quartet ritornello aria, which is unique with its use of two obbligato cellos “which play material of almost concerto-like elaboration,” says Humphreys (Ibid.). The aria “is unparalleled in form,” observes Isoyama (Ibid.), with the cellos moving contrapuntally. The next two movements, a soprano-alto recitative introducing a duet,

are quite “unusual in design,” says Humphreys. The long recitative in two-voice canon with its contrasting tempi and moods develops into an extended arioso, observes Alfred Dürr.6 It is a “prayer for release from this world” for the “true Christian” (says Isoyama (Ibid.). The chorale-troped duet is a “mystical piece” that “prays we may be united with Christ,” says Isoyama (Ibid.). The strings in unison play the full chorale melody, Meinen Jesum laß ich nicht (My Jesus, let I not be from thee). Suzuki’s recording can be heard in line at

Franck’s interpretation of the Gospel and his use of various poetic devices is outlined in Alfred Dürr’s summary of the six movements to which Bach provides special treatment (Ibid.: 621) “The opening aria paraphrases Jesus’s reply to the Pharisees, and on this the poet’s reflections in the following movements are based. The tribute money that we owe God is out heart. Unfortunately, however, it is often not God but a false image that is stamped on the coin, and this devalues it (no. 2). God is therefore asked to stamp His image on the heart anew (no. 3). This didactic metaphor in abandoned in the next to movements. In accordance with Paul’s words in Romans 7:15, the Christian acknowledged that he cannot do the good that he wishes to do (no. 4); he therefore prays that he may be able to fulfill God’s Will (no. 5). The prayer of the concluding chorale -- the last verse of the hymn Wo soll ich fliehen hin by Johann Heermann (1630) – is on similar lines.”

Cantata 163: Movements, scoring, incipit, key, meter.7

1. Aria da capo [Tenor; Violino I/II, Viola, Violoncello, Continuo]: A. “Nur jedem das Seine!” (Only to each his due!); B. “Muß Obrigkeit haben / Zoll, Steuern und Gaben, / Man sich nicht / Der schuldigen Pflicht!” (Since the authorities must have / tolls, taxes and gift, / we should not refuse / the duty that we owe!
2. Recitative [Bass, Continuo]: “Du bist, mein Gott, der Geber aller Gaben” (You are, my God, the giver of all gifts); G Major to a minor; 4/4.
3. Quartet Aria in three parts with ritornelli [Bass; Violoncello obligato I/II, Continuo]: A. Laß mein Herz die Münze sein, / Die ich dir, mein Jesu, steure!” (Let my heart be the coin / that I pay you!); B. Ist sie gleich nicht allzu rein, / Ach, so komm doch und erneure, / Herr, den schönen Glanz bei ihr!” (If it is at first far from pure, / ah, then come and renew, / Lord, its fine gleam!); C. Komm, arbeite, schmelz und präge, / Dass dein Ebenbild bei mir / Ganz erneuert glänzen möge!” (Come, work on it, melt it and stamp it / so that your image in me / completely renewed may shine forth!); e minor; 4/4.
4. Arioso (Duetto) in canon/imitation [Soprano, Alto; Continuo]: “Ich wollte dir, / O Gott, das Herze gerne geben” (To you I wanted, / O God, to give my heart willingly); “Der Will ist zwar bei mir, / Doch Fleisch und Blut will immer widerstreben” (I do indeed have the will / but flesh and blood are always striving against it); arioso prayer, “So mache doch mein Herz mit deiner Gnade voll; / Leer es ganz aus von Welt und allen Lüsten / Und mache mich zu einem rechten Christen.” (Therefore make my heart full of your grace, / empty it completely of the world and all its pleasures / and make me a true Christian); b minor to D Major; 4/4.
5. Chorale trope Aria without ritornelli (Duetto) [Soprano, Alto; Violini e Viola all' unisono, Continuo]: “Nimm mich mir und gib mich dir!” (Take me from myself and give me to you!) repeated as last line; D Major ¾ pastorale-giga style.
6. Chorale [S, A, T, B; Continuo; ? strings, ??winds double): “Führ auch mein Herz und Sinn / Durch deinen Geist dahin” (Lead both my heart and mind / through your spirit away from here); D Major, 4/4.

Note on the text (Francis Browne)

“This cantata for the 23rd Sunday after Trinity was first performed at Weimar on 24 November 1715. The text is drawn from Salomo Franck's Evangelisches Andachts-Opffer (1715) and refers to the Gospel for the day (Matt. 22: 15-22), which deals with the Pharisees' questioning of Jesus as to the legitimacy of paying tribute to Caesar. The libretto takes up the theme suggested by Jesus's reply. The heart is the `coin of tribute' rightfully due to God, but a false image is often stamped upon it. (It is worth recalling that Franck was a numismatist in charge of the ducal coin collection at Weimar.) The final chorale is the last strophe of Johann Heermann’s chorale Wo soll ich fliehen hin (1630). (from the Oxford Composer Companion).”

Poet Salomo Franck

Franck’s special interest in coinage and pure gold is discussed in detail in John Elliot Gardiner’s 2010 liner notes to his 2000 Bach Cantata Pilgrimage complete Soli Deo Gloria recordings of the vocal music.8 Besides being the official Weimar Court poet, Franck’s other duties included being the numismatist in charge of the ducal coin collection. The references to coinage are found in the bass recitative and aria (nos. 2 and 3). Further, Franck’s interest in metals and especially in alchemy may have interested Bach in this “art,” as it did with his Weimar cousin Johann Gottfried Walther.

Franck’s string of six solo cantatas usually in basic six-movement palindrome form: opening concerted aria with alternating two recitatives and two arias and closing with communal plain chorale. The six works and their Sundays are: Cantata 161, “Komm, du süße Toddestunde” (Come thou sweetest death-hour, Trinity 16); Cantata 162, “Ach! ich sehe, / Itzt, da ich zur Hochzeit gehe” (Ah! I see / now, as I go to the wedding), Trinity 20; Cantata 163, “Nur jedem das Seine” (Trinity 23); Cantata 164, “Ihr, die ihr euch von Christo nennet” (You, who take your name from Christ), Trinity 13); Cantata 165, “O heilges Geist- und Wasserbad” (O sacred bath of water and the Spirit), Trinity Sunday; Cantata 168 (Tue Rechnung! “Donnerwort,” (Give an account of yourself! Word of thunder, Luke 16:2). In all, Franck wrote 13 libretti in 1715 for that church year that Bach set mostly in Weimar with some 22 works repeated in Leipzig. Most were unaltered (except BWV 80 expanded as a chorale cantata for Reformation in Leipzig) and many were repeated.

Cantata 163, Special Witt Chorale Melody

In Cantata BWV 163, “Nur jedem das Seine” (Only to each his due), Bach’s primary Weimar librettist, court poet Salomo Franck, chose the final, 11th verse, “Führ auch mein Merz und Sinn” (Lead also my heart and mind) from Johann Hermann’s popular 1630 <omnes tempore> Penitential and general Communion Hymn, “Wo soll ich Fliehen hin” (Where shall I flee hence), also known as “Auf meinen lieben Gott” (From my loving God). For Francis Browne’s full text English translation of the hymn, see BCW, 1-Eng3.htm. The BCW information on the melody and text is found at

The 23rd Sunday after Trinity in Weimar in 1715 proved serendipitous and fortuitous, especially in Bach’s collaboration with Franck. In late Trinity Time the previous year, 1714, Bach had been unable to produce his required monthly Sunday cantatas for Trinity for three services, the 15th, 19th and 23rd Sundays after Trinity. Fortunately, Bach was able to secure the services of Franck with the next cantata text cycle, “Evangelisches Andachts-Opffer” (Evangelical Sermon Offerings), published in 1715 and with which Bach was able to set some 13 musical sermons. Bach began the cycle with Cantata BWV 152 for the Sunday after Christmas (December 30, 1714). This monthly production was halted on August 11, 1715, when a three-month mourning period was declared for Bach’s favorite Prince Johann Ernst, with Bach providing no cantatas on the 8th, 12th, 16th, and 20th Sundays after Trinity 1715. Bach was scheduled to present the next monthly cantata on the First Sunday in Advent on December 1. Instead, with the mourning period ended, Bach was able to provide a new cantata, BWV 163, a week earlier, on the final Sunday in Trinity Time (the 23rd), on November 24.

Bach personalized the Heermann hymn text with a special 1679 melody found with the text in the 1715 Gotha Hymnal of Christian Friedrich Witt (c.1662-1717). A year previously (Trinity 11, August 12, 1714) Bach had used the same Witt melody as the viola da gamba obbigato in soprano solo Cantata, “Mein Herz schwimmt im Blut” (My heart swims in Blood), in the sixth movement aria setting of Hermann’s Stanza 3, "Ich, dein betrübtes Kind,/ Werf alle meine Sünd" (I, your troubled child, cast all my sins), as found in Christian Lehm’s 1711 published cantata annual cycle text. Details of Witt’s Turingian melody (Zahn 2177) and other settings are found at BCW, Witt’s short biography, BCW:

No four-part plain chorale setting is found in the surviving sources for Cantata BWV 163/6. No original parts set survives and it is assumed that Bach’s oldest son, Wilhelm Friedemann, inherited it as well as the surviving score, as part of both score and parts sets for the final Trinity Time Sundays (17-26) of 1723 in Annual Cantata Cycle 1. Given the score with its standard basso continuo part only designated for the chorale, as well as the presumed Witt soprano melody, and no four-part setting found in second-son Carl Philipp Emmanuel’s “complete” collection of his father’ Breitkopf chorale settings, 1784-87, the inner two alto and tenor parts were reconstructed based on Bach’s harmonizing principles found in the BGA XXXIII (see Footnote 1).

The closing chorale in BWV 163 is preceeded with the soprano-alto love duet, “Nimm mich mir und gib mich dir” (Take me from myself and give me to thee) with unison obbligato violin and viola playing Andreas Hammerschmidt’s “Meinen Jesum laß ich nicht” (My Jesus, let I not leave), found in the NLGB No. 346, <omne tempore> Death & Dying, Zahn melody 3449). Bach’s use of obbligato melody in his service cantata arias as Christian proclamation dates to his earliest Cantatas BWV 4, 106, and 131 at Mühlhausen in 1707-08.

Other Trinity 23 Cantatas and Chorales

Chorale Cantata 139 based on Pietist Hymn

As Trinity Time in the chorale cantata cycle came to its end in November 1724, Bach had virtually exhausted appropriate, popular Trinity Time chorales in his first two cantata cycles involving nearly 50 works. For the 23rd Sunday after Trinity, he looked for a concise five- or six-stanza text to use for Chorale Cantata 139, with a theme of Trust in God appropriate for this Sunday’s popular Gospel lesson of Rendering unto Ceasar (Mat. 22:15-22) and the Epistle commentary of Apostle Paul’s cautionary Letter to the Philippians (3:17-21) to avoid earthly things of the flesh. Bach found such a five-stanza sacred text from the popular pietist songwriter Johann Christoph Rube (c.1665-1746), “Wohl dem der sich auf seinen Gott . . . kann verlassen” (“Well for him who himself on his God . . . can depend), dating to 1692. See Rube’s short biography, BCW:

Cantata 52: Austere Pietist Tone

Cantata BWV 52, “Falsche Welt, dir trau ich nicht” (False worlds, thee trust I not) closes Trinity Time in the incomplete, homogeneously-texted third annual cantata cycle, on November 24, 1726. Besides Bach’s recent reuse of instrumental concerti movements in intimate settings, these late Trinity Time texts often show pietistic influences perhaps from Picander as utilized by Bach. Cantata BWV 52 shows distinct textual connections to Pietist writer Johann Jacob Rambach (1693-1735), whose works were found in Bach’s library along with other pietist writers Philipp Jacob Spener, Heinrich Müller, and Johann Arndt.

The soprano solo Cantata BWV 52 closes (Movement 6) with the Stanza 1 harmonization of Adam Reusner’s 1533 paraphrase of Psalm 31, “In dich hab' ich gehoffet, Herr” (In Thee have I hoped; NLGB 254 Psalm Hymn, 7 stanzas). See text and Francis Browne English Translation of the chorale, BCW, The associated chorale melody (Zahn 2461) with the same title was composed in 1581 by Seth Calvisius (1556-1615), Bach St. Thomas predecessor. See BCW Calvisius Short Biography htttp://

Bach’s Trinity 23 Hymn Schedule

The NLGB lists four <omne tempore> pulpit and Communion Hymns appropriate for the 23rd Sunday after Trinity. All are poetic paraphrases of Psalms of praise or caution found in the NLGB under the< omne tempore> category, Christian Life & Hope. They are Psalm 46, Martin Luther’s setting, “A mighty fortress is our God”; two related settings of Psalm 124 involving Thanksgiving for Deliverance; and Psalm 1, ”Wer nicht sitzt im gottliche Rat” (Who sits not in godly counsel).

+”Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (A mighty fortress is our God, Psalm 46); details, BCW:, NLGB (p.) 670.
+“Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns halt” (If Got the Lord does not abide in us, Psalm 124, Justus Jonas’ 1524 paraphrase, NLGB 267), BCW (also full details of “Wo sol lich fliehen hin”).
+“Wär Gott nicht mit uns diese Zeit” (Were Got not with us this time, Psalm 124 Hymn, Luther, NLGB 266, anonymous melody (Zahn 4434). Bach used Luther’s 1524 three-verse text once in Chorale Cantata BWV 14, “Wär Gott nicht mit uns diese Zeit,” for the 4th Sunday after Epiphany in 1735. Instead of the related, rarely heard anonymous Johann Walther melody, Bach used the the popular Justas Jonas accompanying melody to his 1524 Psalm 124 paraphrase, “Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns halt.” The NLGB also designates “Wär Gott nicht mit uns diese Zeit,” for the 4th Sunday after Epiphany (Bach’s use) and the 5th Sunday after Trinity.

”Wer nicht sitzt im gottliche Rat” (Who sits not in godly counsel) is a Psalm 1 paraphrase (Christian Life and Hope) from the Cornelius Becker 1602 Psalter (texts only to popular melodies). It was set to music in Heinrich Schütz’s Becker Psalter, Op.5, SWV 97-256 (published 1628/61). Becker’s six stanzas and the “Gloria Patri,” Doxology in praise of the Christian Trinity appears in the NLGB as No. 241, set to the melody (Zahn 305), “Wo Gott zum Haus nicht gib sein Gunst” (Where God to the house gives not his goodwill). The text is Johann Kolrose’s four-verse setting with “Gloria” of Psalm 127 (NLGB 268). For detailed information on the settings of Psalm 124 and 127 as well as texts and translations, see BCW,, “Leipzig Main Service Chorales (Trinity 5).

Other Bach Trinity 23 opportunities:

+On November 16, 1727, there was no performance during the mourning period of Sept. 7, 1727, to Jan. 8, 1728, for deceased Saxon Queen Christiane Eberhardine.
+On October 31, 1728, the Picander Cycle printed text for Cantata P-67, “Schnöde Schönheit dieser Welt,” was schedule but contained no chorale stanza, possibly because this Sunday fell on the Reformation Festival with various choices for chorale texts.
+On Trinity, November 13, 1735, Bach probably performed a Stözel two-part cantata, “Ich weiß, mein Gott, daß du das Herz prüfest” [not extant], as part of the cycle “Saitenspiele testeddes Hertzens” (Music Playing of the Heart), text by Benjamin Schmolck, with two chorale settings not identified.
+About Novemer, 1736, Bach may have performed a Stözel two-part cantata, from the cantata cycle “Das Namenbuch Christi,” (Book of Names of Christ), Schmolck text, No. 65. No musical source with the presumed chorales is extant.


For a full enjoyment of Cantatas BWV 163, 139, and 152 in the BCW discussion, here again are valuable, available BCW resources:

+Julian Mincham’s Cantata Commentary, especially musical details as well as other related insights, see the BCW pages:;;
+Access the same pages for Claude Role’s new Cantata Commentary in French, especially for documented sources on the dating, manuscript sources, biblical sources (pericope), text, individual movements, and extensive bibliography.


1 Cantata 163, BCW Details and Revised and Updated Discography,
Score Vocal & Piano [1.34 MB],, Score BGA [1.43 MB], References: BGA: XXXIII (Cantatas 161-170, Franz Wüllner, 1887), NBA KB I/26 (Trinity 23 Cantatas, Andreas Gloeckner, 1995), Bach Compendium BC A 158, and Zwang: K 23.
2 Original source: BCW “BWV 163: Chorales for Trinity 23: Pietist Influences, William Hoffman (August 18, 2012): Musical Context of Bach Cantatas, Motets & Chorales for 23rd Sunday after Trinity,”
3 Petzoldt, Bach Kommentar: Die geistlichen Kantaten des 1.Bis 27. Trinitas-Sontagges, Vol. 1; Theologisch Musikwissenschaftlicke Kommentierung der Geistlichen Vokalwerke Johann Sebastan Bachs, Internationale Bachakademie Stuttgart (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2004: 635.
4 Humphreys in OCC: JSB, ed. Boyd, Malcolm (Oxford University Press: New York, 1999: 323).
5 Isoyama notes,[BIS-CD801].pdf; BCW Recording details,
6 Dürr, Cantatas of J. S. Bach, revised and translated by Richard D. P. Jones (Oxford University Press, New York, 2005: 622).
7Salomo Franck German text and Francis Browne English translation and Note on the text, BCW
8 Gardiner notes,[sdg171_gb].pdf; BCW Recording details,

Aryeh Oron wrote (November 3, 2015):
Cantata BWV 163 - Revised & updated Discography

The discography pages of the Solo Cantata BWV 163 "Nur jedem das Seine!" (Only to each his due!) for the 23rd Sunday after Trinity on the BCW have been revised and updated.
The cantata is scored for soprano, alto & bass soloists; 4-part chorus; and orchestra of 2 violins, viola, 2 violoncello obbligato& continuo. See:
Complete Recordings (8):
Recordings of Individual Movements (9):
The revised discography includes many listening/watching options to recordings directly from the discography pages, just below the recording details.

I also put at the BCW Home Page:
2 audios of the cantata. A short description below the audio/video image is linked to the full details at the discography pages.

I believe this is the most comprehensive discography of this solo cantata. If you are aware of a recording of BWV 163 missing from these pages, or want to correct/add details of a recording already presented on the BCW, please do not hesitate to inform me.

You can also read on the BCW the recent discussion of the cantata in the BCML (4th round):


Cantata BWV 163: Details & Complete Recordings | Recordings of Individual Movements
Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4

Recordings & Discussions of Cantatas: Main Page | Cantatas BWV 1-50 | Cantatas BWV 51-100 | Cantatas BWV 101-150 | Cantatas BWV 151-200 | Cantatas BWV 201-224 | Cantatas BWV Anh | Order of Discussion
Discussions of General Topics: Cantatas & Other Vocal Works | Performance Practice | Radio, Concerts, Festivals, Recordings


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