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Cantata BWV 190
Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied
Cantata BWV 190a
Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied!
Discussions - Part 6

Continue from Part 4

Discussions in the Week of January 3, 2016 (4th round)

William Hoffman wrote (January 3, 2016):
[BachCantatas] Re: Cantata 190: Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied: Intro.

New Year's Day in Bach’s performance calendar proved to be both a festive sacred and secular celebration and Bach literally pulled out all the stops to impress his employers in Leipzig with Te Deum-style music and psalm texts. He used large performing forces with three trumpets and drums, often with added flourishes, employing the civic stadtfeiffer brass ensemble and full choruses with extensive arias and recitatives as well as a variety of festive and thematic chorales. Bach produced six full-scale cantatas and also performed works of his colleagues Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel and Johann Friedrich Fasch.

For his first effort as Leipzig cantor and music director, Bach set the standard with Cantata BWV 190 “Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied!” (Sing to the Lord a new song!, Psalm 149:1. It was presented on New Year's Day, Saturday, January 1, 1724, at the early main service of his St. Thomas Church, before the sermon of arch-deacon Johann Gottlob Carzov (1679-1767) on the day’s Gospel, Luke 2:21, the Feast of the Circumcision (Naming) of Jesus, says Martin Petzoldt in Bach Commentary, Vol. 2, Advent to Trinityfest.1

The service was followed by the afternoon main vespers service at the Nikolai church with a sermon on the day’s Epistle, Galatians 3:23-29 (Through faith we are heirs of God’s promise), by M. Romanis Teller (1703-1750). Readings for New Year's Day are: Epistle, Galatians 3:23-29 (Through faith we are heirs of God’s promise), and Gospel, Luke 2:21 (Circumcision. His name shall be called Jesus). The German text is that of Luther’s translation published in 1545, the English is the Authorised (King James) Version 1611, see full texts, BCW http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Read/New-Year-Day.htm.

The 20-minute Cantata 190 may have been Bach’s first major parody or recycling of previous festive music set to new text underlay in the three madrigalian movements: opening prelude and fugue chorus, alto aria (no. 3), “Lobe, Zion, deinen Gott” (Praise, Zion, your God), and tenor-bass duet (no. 5), “Jesus soll mein alles sein” (Jesus will be everything for me). The three movements use popular progressive triple-time dance-style involving, respectively, generic, polonaise, and menuett. All three are thought to be parodies of music composed previously in Köthen as sacred or secular serenades for New Year's Day annual celebrations at the court or church.

Interestingly, there have been many reconstructions of this worthy work (see below) and the most recent is Thomanerchor, Georg Christoph Biller on Rondeau, BCW Recording details, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Performers/Biller.htm#D2, recording, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=himLz7hi_Fs.

Bach used full-ensemble chorales: Martin Luther’s 1529 setting of the German Te Deum “Herr Gott, dich loben wir” (Lord God, we praise thee) in the first two movements, and closed Cantata 190 with Johannes Herman’s 1591, “Jesu, nun sei gepreiset” (Jesus, now be praised), Stanza 2, “Laß uns das Jahr vollbringen / Zu Lob dem Namen dein” (Let us complete the year with praise for your name). BCW Chorale Texts, Francis Browne English translations: Jesu, nun sei gepreiset, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale005-Eng3.htm; Herr Gott, dich loben wir [The German Te Deum], http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale036-Eng3.htm.

Chorale Melodies: Herr Gott, dich loben wir [The German Te Deum], http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Das-Tedeum.htm; Jesu, nun sei gepreiset, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Jesu-nun-sei-gepreiset.htm. Further information: BCW Musical Context: Motets & Chorales for Turning Time, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/LCY/M&C-Turning-Time.htm. Bach’s uses:

*“Herr Gott, dich loben wir” (Te Deum) (Luther 1529, mel. J. Klug 1535, NLGB 167 Apostles Feast); NY, TC*) BWV 16/1 (chs,1), NY 1726; BWV 190(a)/1,2 (chs,1), NY 1724; BWV 119/9, BWV 120/6 (PC, mel.), Town Council 1723, 1728.
*“Jesu, nun sei gepreiset” (J. Hermann, mel. anon. 1591, NLGB 46); BWV 41/1(chs.,1), NY 1725; BWV 171/6(PC3), NY 1729= BWV 41/6(6); BWV 190/7(PC,2), NY 1724; 362(1).
*“Schau, lieber Gott, wie meine Feind” (D. Denicke 1646, mel. anon. “Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein,” Luther Psalm 12, 1524); BWV 153/1(chs.1), SaNY 1724; [see also “Befiel du deine Wege” (153/5) and
“Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid” (Ah God, how many a heartache; M. Möller 1590, 18 stanzas, NLGB 533a, Cross & Persecution; Melody 2* (1455, anon., Herr Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht II); BWV 58/1(aria,1*) SaNY 1727; BWV 153/9(PC11,12*) SaNY 1724; BWV 3, (CC, 1725*), Eph. 2+ 1725
“Befiel du deine Wege” (Gerhardt 1653; NLGB 329, mel Herzlich tut, Death & Dying, Hassler 1601); BWV 153/5(PC,1) SaNY 1724; “Das alte Jahr vergangen ist” (J. Steurlein 1588, NLGB 44, NY) BWV 288(6), BWV 289 (1, 2), BWV 614(OB), BWV 1091 (NC); German text is found on-line at Musicanet, http://www.musicanet.org/robokopp/Lieder/dasaltej.html. There is Catherine Winkworth 1863 English translation of all six stanzas, “The Old Year Now hath Passed way,” Cyber Hymnal, http://www.hymntime.com/tch/htm/o/y/e/oyearnwp.htm.

Cantata 190 Movements, Scoring, Incipit, Key, Meter:3

1. Coro with opening sinfonia, prelude with plain chorale and fugue [SATB; Violino I/II (Tromba I-III, Timpani, Oboe I-III, Viola, Continuo): Prelude, “Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied!” (Sing to the Lord a new song!, Psalm 149:1); chorale “Herr Gott, dich loben wir!” (Lord God, we praise you!); Fugue, “Alles, was Odem hat, lobe den Herrn!” (Everything that has breath praise the Lord !); D Major; ¾ generic daqnce-style.
2. Chorale plain and troped recitatives [Bass, Tenor, Alto; Violino I/II (Tromba I-III, Timpani, Oboe I-III, Viola, Continuo); “Herr Gott, dich loben wir” (Lord God, we praise you); bass recitative, “Daß du mit diesem neuen Jahr / Uns neues Glück und neuen Segen schenkest” (That with this new year you / bestow on us new good fortune and new blessing); tenor ercitative, “Daß deine Gütigkeit / In der vergangnen Zeit / Das ganze Land und unsre werte Stadt” (that your kindness / in the past time / has protected the whole land and our dear city); alto recitative, “Denn deine Vatertreu / Hat noch kein Ende” (since your fatherly love / has still no end); mixolydian b minor to A Major; 4/4.
3. Aria dal segno with opening sinfonia: [Alto; Violino I/II, Viola, Continuo]: “Lobe, Zion, deinen Gott” (Praise, Zion, your God); “Auf! erzähle dessen Ruhm” (Up! tell of his glory); A Major; ¾ polonaise style.
4. Recitative secco [Bass, Continuo]: “Es wünsche sich die Welt, / Was Fleisch und Blute wohlgefällt” (The world may wish for / what pleases flesh and blood); f-sharp minor to A Major, 4/4.
5. Aria (Duetto) two-part with ritornelli in canon [Tenor, Bass; Oboe d', Continuo]: A. “Jesus soll mein alles sein” (Jesus will be everything for me); “B. Jesus hilft mir durch sein Blut” (Jesus helps me through his blood); D Major, 6/8 passepied-menuett style.
6. Recitative secco [Tenor; Violino I/II, Viola, Continuo]: Nun, Jesus gebe, / Daß mit dem neuen Jahr auch sein Gesalbter lebe” (Now, Jesus, grant / that with the new year his anointed may also live); b minor to A Major; 4/4.
7. Chorale plain in BAR form with flourishes [SATB; Tromba I-III, Timpani, Oboe I-III, Violino I/II, Viola, Continuo); “Laß uns das Jahr vollbringen / Zu Lob dem Namen dein” (Let us complete the year with praise for your name); D Major; 4/4.

Within a period of two weeks from Christmas to the Feast of the Epiphany (January 6), Bach produced five cantatas which utilized three plain chorales, although the individual order is different: BWV 40, “Darzu ist erschienen der Sohn Gottes (For this reason the Son of God appeared), for the Second Day of Christmas; Cantata 64, “Sehet, welch eine Liebe hat uns der Vater erzeiget” (See, what sort of love the Father has shown to us), for the Third Day of Christmas); Cantata 190, “Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied!” (Sing to the Lord a new song!), for the Feast of New Year's Day); Cantata 153, “Schau, lieber Gott, wie meine Feind” (Behold, dear God, how my enemies), for the Sunday after New Year’s; and Cantata 65, “See warden aus Saba alle kommen” (They will all come from Sheba). Four of the five are festive choruses cantatas while Cantata 153, presented on Sunday, January 2, opens with a plain chorale and appears to have been designed by Bach that way to give his chorus a break from exacting singing. It also is a most appropriate works for OVPP. The others usually have about eight movements of three chorales, opening chorus, two arias and two recitatives. Cantata 153 has nine movements of three each chorales, short arias, and recitatives in clusters of three.

New Year's Day Feast

Description of New Year's Day (Aryeh Oron): <<New Year's Day is the first day of the year. On the modern Gregorian calendar, it is celebrated on January 1, as it was also in ancient Rome (though other dates were also used in Rome). In all countries except for Israel using the Gregorian calendar as their main calendar, it is a public holiday, often celebrated with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts. January 1 on the Julian calendar corresponds to January 14 on the Gregorian calendar, and it is on that date that followers of some of the Eastern Orthodox churches celebrate the New Year. In Western Christianity New Year's Day, January 1, is the 8th day of Christmas.

The Feast of the Circumcision of Our Lord is a Christian celebration of the Brit milah (ritual circumcision) of Jesus, 8 days (according to the Semitic and southern European calculation of intervals of days) after his birth, the occasion to on which the child was formally given his name, Jesus, a name derived from Hebrew meaning "salvation" or "saviour". Therefore New Year's Day is sometimes called Holy Name and/or Circumcision of Christ.>>

Bach's uses of the chorale during the pivot time, or turn of the year (Turning Time) from the Christmas season to the Feast of Epiphany, January 6, showed great freedom. In fact, Bach could use Advent and Christmas hymns in his cantatas or musical sermons, based on the day’s Gospel or the theme of the service, for almost two months until February 2, the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Bach also was able to use penitential hymns as well as songs of praise and thanksgiving, especially for the festive New Year’s (Holy Name or Circumcision of Jesus) and Feast of Epiphany. The other services during the period are the 1st Sunday after Christmas Day [Christmas + 1] or the alternate Sunday after New Year, also known as the 2nd Sunday after Christmas [Christmas + 2, New Year + 1].

The established polyphonic motet opening Introit Psalm setting in Bach’s time in Leipzig for Turning Time were Psalms 117, 34, 62, and 8, says Petzoldt (Ibid.: 251, 275, 333, 367).

Bach’s New Year’s Cantatas

Cantatas Bach presented for New Years are: Cantatas: BWV 190 Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied! (Leipzig, 1724); BWV 41 Jesu, nun sei gepreiset (Leipzig, 1725); BWV 16 Herr Gott, dich loben wir (Leipzig, 1726, repeat 1749); motet BWV 225, Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied (possibly 1727); BWV 171 Gott, wie dein Name, so ist auch dein Ruhm (God, as your name, so also is your fame [Ps. 48:10]; Leipzig, 1729); BWV 143 Lobe den Herrn, meine Seele [II] (Praise the Lord, my soul), (Mühlhausen/Weimar, 1708-14); BWV 248/4 Fallt mit Danken, fallt mit Loben (Fall with thanks, fall with praise; Leipzig, 1734-1735); BWV 134a Die Zeit, die Tag und Jahre macht (The time, the day, the years create; Köthen, 1719); 1736-01-01 So Neujahr - G.H. Stölzel: Gott, der du mein Gott und Heiland bist [You are my God and saviour, Ps. 51:14; Not extant].

Vocal works with no definite date: (1708-1714?) - Cantata BWV 143 Lobe den Herrn, meine Seele (1st performance, Mühlhausen). (1729-1735 ?) - J.F. Fasch: Cantata Gehet zu seinen Thoren ein mit Danken (Enter into his gates with thanks, Ps.100:4), FWV D:G 1 (1st performance, Leipzig). (1732-1735) - Cantata BWV 41 Jesu, nun sei gepreiset (2nd performance, Leipzig). (1735-1740) - Cantata BWV 190 Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied (2nd performance, Leipzig).

NEW YEAR: BWV 190, Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied [parodied, incomplete]. 1/1/24 (Cycle 1), repeated 1736-39; wholly original, parodied in BWV 190a, Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied!, Augsburg 1, 6/25/1730. Sources: (1) score (#3-7 only, SPK P.127, CPEB, Berlin Sing.), (2) 6 parts (SATB, vn 1&2 (doublets), SPK St.88, ?, Berlin Sing.), score #1-2, other parts (3 tp, timp., 3 ob [1 d/a], va, bc) with BWV 190a (lost). Literature: BG XXXXI (Alfred Dörffel 1894; NBA KB I/4 (Werner Neumann 1964); reconstruction Walther Reinhart (Zürich: Hug, 1948); recon. Olivier Alain, 1971; Smend Bach in Köthen, 66-70, 86 (190/3-6 orig. Köthen ? 1/1/1723); Whittaker II:221-5; Robertson 39 f; Young 141-3; Dürr 147. Score (pf,vv): http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Scores/BWV190-V&P.pdf. (Kalmus-?Alain K 06060, Drinker Eng. Trans.); 190, Breitkopf 7190, 1996, D. Hellmann reconstruction. Text: #1, 2, Luther cle. Te Deum; #4-6, ?? Bach or Picander; Mvt. 7, Herman cle. "Jesu, nun sei gepreiset" ("Jesus, Now Be Praised") (S. 2).

First, review the BCML discussion of Cantata, BWV 190: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190-D.htm
especially Aryeh Oron's Intro, Aug. 115, 2003, John Pike's Intro, Jan. 15, 2006 (Part 2), and Biographical notes (BCML Cantata 190 Discussions Parts 3 (August 3, 2009), http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190-D3.htm:

Aryeh Oron: <<Background: Alfred Dürr (1966, liner notes to Thamm’s recording, English translation by John Wilde): Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, Bach's first New Year cantata for Leipzig, written for January 1st, 1724, has unfortunately not survived complete. Only a few of the original parts for the first two movements have been handed down and the others have had to be reconstructed. This task was undertaken by Walther Reinhart with a maximum of skill and feeling for the original and the cantata is now accepted as complete for performance today.

The same cantata was used again by Bachin 1730 for the second centenary of the Augsburg Confession, but with a different text by Christian Friedrich Henrici, known as Picander. It remains questionable, however, whether Henrici wrote the text for the first version since it was not until later that his close collaboration with the composer began.

For the Christian world, the new year is the festival of the circumcision and naming of Christ, but it is only in the fifth and sixth movements that this cantata makes any reference to the specific readings for the day over and above the more general theme of a new beginning. The dominant movement is the opening chorus, in four sections and with a text based on verses from the psalms and the beginning of Luther's German version of the Te Deum. There are three main passages, with parts from the Te Deum, sung unisono by the choir, between each. First comes the concertante movement, Singet dem Herrn, followed by the Te Deum passage Herr Gott, dich loben wir. Then comes the choral fugue Alles, was Odem hat: Between this and the finale, Alleluja, a shorter version of the first movement, there is a further passage from the Te Deum, Herr Gott, wir danken dir.

The opening of the Te Deum is also featured in the second movement, arranged this time for a number of voices and designed to bind together recitative sections for fewer parts. The dance-like basis of the aria Lobe Zion, deinen Gott serves as a reminder that only a year previously, Bach had still been director of music for the court at Köthen. Although it is unlikely that it was actually composed during his period there, it demonstrates the extend to whim religion and the secular world were united in Bach's life. A recitative then leads into the duet Jesus Boll mein alles sein, in which the undefined obbligato part was probably intended for the oboe d'amore. This movement too, for all its depth of expression and artistic skill, shows an easy grace in the concertante oboe score. The prayers for the New Year are repeated in a recitative with string accompaniment and the cantata is brought to a close with a choral stanza from the New Year's song Jesu, nun sei gepreiset accompanied by an obbligato trumpet fanfare, which marks the close of each line.>>

Cantata 190, Motet BWV 225

“It's instructive to compare motet and cantata,” says Douglas Cowling, BCML Discussions Part 3 (August 10, 2009, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190-D3.htm) “A quick outline of the motet: Mvt 1: (bipartite "prelude and fugue") Prelude: "Singet Dem Herrn," Fugue: "Die Kinder Zion,"Mvt 2 (Polyphonic "Aria" interspersed with Chorale): Choir 1: Aria: "Gott, nimm dich ferner unser an," Choir 2: Chorale: "Wie sich ein Vater erbarmet, "Mvt 3: ("prelude and fugue"): Prelude: Lobet den Herrn in seinen Taten, Fugue: Alles, was Odem hat (Common texts are bracketed):

Cantata text: [Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied! Die Gemeine der Heiligen soll ihn loben!] Lobet ihn mit Pauken und Reigen, lobet ihn mit Saiten und Pfeifen! [Alles, was Odem hat, lobe den Herrn!]

Motet text: Mvt 1, [Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, Die Gemeine der Heiligen sollen ihn loben.] Israel freue sich des, der ihn gemacht hat. Die Kinder Zion sei'n fröhlich über ihrem Könige, Sie sollen loben seiNamen im Reihen; mit Pauken und mit Harfen sollen sie ihm spielen. Mvt 3: Lobet den Herrn in seinen Taten,lobet ihn in seiner großen Herrlichkeit! [Alles, was Odem hat, lobe den Herrn] Halleluja!

In both "Singet" sections, Bach contrasts homophonic shouts of "Singet dem Herrn" with ecstatic vocalizations on "singet" and "lobet". Both melodies for "singet" have the same prominent dactylic rhythm. In both cantata and motet, the "Singet" section functions as a kind of choral prelude to the fugue which follows.

"Alles was Odem hat" is set in both works as fugues, but they have very different themes and developments. Probably coincidently, they both begin in the basses and rise successively through the tenor, alto and soprano. There is some similarity to the theme of "Sicut locutus est" but ornamented by the dactylic "singet" theme as a counter-subject. The motet fugue is set in quicksilver 3/8 with constantly diminishing stretto which makes the voices sound literally and symbolically gasping for breath.

One other interesting point about this New Year's cantata is the use of the chorale, "Herr wir loben" which is the German version of the Te Deum. The Te Deum was traditionally sung on New Year's Day as a thanksgiving for the preceding year (a continuation of the Catholic tradition). Bach set the long canticle-chorale as a monumental organ chorale prelude and motet setting which the congregation would recognize instantly as THE New Year's hymn -- sort of an ecclesiastical "Auld Lange Syne".

Motet BWV 225/1 (Psalm 149:1-3), Francis Browne English translation):

Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied,
Sing to the Lord a new song,
Die Gemeine der Heiligen sollen ihn loben.
The congregation of the saints should praise him.
Israel freue sich des, der ihn gemacht hat.
Israel rejoices in the one who made him.
Die Kinder Zion sei'n fröhlich über ihrem Könige,
Let the children of Sion be joyful about their king,
Sie sollen loben seinen Namen im Reihen;
They should praise his name in their dances
mit Pauken und mit Harfen sollen sie ihm spielen.
With drums and harps they should play for him.
BWV 225/3 (Psalm 150: 2, 6)
Lobet den Herrn in seinen Taten,
Praise God in his works,
lobet ihn in seiner großen Herrlichkeit!
Praise him in his great glory!
Alles, was Odem hat, lobe den Herrn Halleluja!
Let all that has breath praise the Lord, Hallelujah!

<<William Hoffmann wrote (August 10, 2009): BWV 190: Multiple Settings of texts. Thank you again, Doug Cowling for your information in Multiple Settings of texts, especially the final verse of the final psalm, "Let everything that hath breath praise the Lord," your advocacy of the motets, and the ultimate New Year's chorale, "Herr Gott, dich loben wir."

Before I forget, the John Eliot Gardner Bach cantata release, Vol.17, is available Aug. 11. It has New Year's and Sunday After New Year's Cantatas BWV 143, BWV 41, BWV 16, BWV 171, BWV 153, and BWV 58. I don't see BWV 190. Gardiner has not recorded Cantata 190 or commented on it in his recent book, Bach: Music in the Castle of Heaven.

Connections and Contexts: Re. Psalm 150:6, Alles was Odem hat (All that has breath): there is BWV 223, "Meine Seele soll Gott loben" (questionable fragment, Spitta), closing fugue in Bb: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV223-D.htm. Also the phrase is found in the closing tutti fugues BWV 190/1 (NY) and BWV 190a/1 (Augsburg), BWV 120a/8 closing chorale (wedding), and the same text in the closing chorale 137/5 with obbligato trumpet choir (?council). There also is a cantata of the same words by Johann Ernst Bach (1722-1727). He was a Sebastian student (1737-1742).

As for Bach's "monumental organ chorale prelude and motet; setting," BWV 725, says Peter Williams, <Organ Music of JSB> 467f : Luther's rhyming couplets, 53 lines; "BWV 725 often agrees with BWV 328 (plain chorale) when it does not re-harmonize for a new verse." "It is not certain Forkel's MS (the only copy) included the unique text incipits." See the full text on BCML: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale036-Eng3.htm.

The music and a portion of Luther's Te Deum text is found in Cantata BWV 16/1 opening chorale chorus (NY), BWV 190/1,2 unison chorus and chorale trope (NY), 119/9 closing chorale (council), 120/6 closing chorale (council), BWV 190a,1,2 (Augsburg Confession) same as 190/1,2. Incidentally, in a recent BCW discussion, I believe Doug Cowling offered an explanation of why the Latin Te Deum wasn't performed in Lutheran Countries. Dogma, maybe?>>

Cantata 190a Parody: Augsburg Confession

William Hoffman wrote (August 19, 2009, BCML Cantata 190 Discussions, Part 4, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190-D4.htm): BWV 190: Praise & Thanksgiving: The Augsburg Confession Cantatas: BWV 190a, "Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied," June 25, 1730; 120b, "Gott, man lobet dich in der Stille," June 26, 1730; and Anh. I 4a, "Wünschet Jerusalem Glück; June 27, 1730.

Jubilee of the 200th Anniversary of the Augsburg Confession (25-27 June 1730). Text: Christian Friedrich Henrici (Picander), Ernst-Schertzhaffte und Satyrische Gedichte, Teil III (Leipzig, 1732); Facs: Neumann T, p. 334; Reprint in Sicul, Annales Lipsienses, Sectio XXXVIII (1731) and Das Jubilierende Leipzig (1731).

Literature: NBA KBI/34, 1990 Higuchi; Stiller, JSB & Liturgical Life in Leipzig, 1984, 79-81; A. Schering Cantata Studies 1741, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190a.htm.

AUGSBURG CONFESSION I: 190a, Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied [parody, incomplete]. 6/25/1730, St. Nicholas Church; wholly original, parody of BWV 190, Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied!, 1/1/1724, repeated 1736-39.

Sources: BWV 190/1,3,5; ?311; recits. 190a/4,6 lost. Literature: Reconstruction D. Hellmann, 1972, Breitkopf& Härtel, Widesbaden (orig. recits.). Text: #1, 2, Luther cle. Te Deum; #3-6, Picander 1732; #7, Luther mel. "Es wohl uns Gott genädig sein," text (S.3) "Es danke Gott und lobe dich." Forces (190): ATB, 4 vv, 3 tp, timp, 3 ob (1 d'a), str, bc.

Movements: chorus, 3 recit. (BTA, B, T), 2 arias (A, TB), chorale.
1. Chs.(?tutti): Sing to the Lord a new song (Ps.149:1, 150:4, 6)=190/1
2. Rec.(?BTA w/cle.): O God, we praise Thee=190/3
3. Aria(?A,str): Praise Zion thy God with joy (Ps.23:2) (polonaise)= 190/3
4. Rec.(?B): Lord, if thy evangelism, the heaven's teaching (new, music lost)
After the Sermon:
5. Aria(?TB,ob): Blessed are we through the word (passepied-minuet)=190/5
6. Rec.(?T,str): God to thee our lips sacrifice their fruit (new, music lost)
7. Cle.(?tutti): They thanketh God, and praiseth thee=69/6 (Council, 1748), orig. ?BWV 311>>

<<On special occasions the Te Deum laudaumus was presented. These included the feasts of St. Michael and Reformation Day, as well as special praise and thanksgiving services, when the Te Deum laudaumus was sung, with organ, trumpets and drums. (Stiller, pp. 81f). Bach has two related settings of Luther's German Te Deum and New Year's chorale, "Herr Gott, dich loben wir": the extended organ chorale prelude, BWV 725, and the four-voice chorale setting, BWV 328.

There is a strong interrelationship among the works Bach composed for services of praise and thanksgiving. First are the works for the Feast of New Year's Day in Leipzig with five cantatas (BWV 190, BWV 16, BWV 41, BWV 171, and BWV 248IV) for all five projected sacred cycles. Also, there is the eight-voice motet BWV 225, Singet dem Herr ein neues Lied, first performed possibly on Jan. 1, 1727, and possibly again on May 12, 1727, along with lost Cantata BWV Anh. 9, for the birthday of Saxony ruler Augustus the Strong.

We also have at least five parodies of Köthen celebratory serenades (BWV 66, BWV 134, BWV 174, BWV 184, BWV 194) for the Feasts of Easter, Pentecost, and Trinity Sunday in 1724, cantatas without trumpets and drums.

Then, there are the annual cantatas for the installation of the Leipzig Town Council in late August: surviving, BWV 119, BWV 193, BWV 120, BWV 29, and BWV 69; questionable, BWV 137; lost, Anh. 4, 3, and BWV 193; parody fragments, BWV 216a, possibly sinfonia sketch BWV 1045. Despite Bach's conflicts with his employers, he may have presented council cantatas every year, as he probably did with Passions on Good Friday.

As to a special Thanksgiving service, Bach presented other works for similar special celebrations of either Lutheran observance or the Saxon Court. Besides three parodies for the three-day festival for the 200th Anniversary of the Augsburg Confession, June 26-28, 1730, we have the Festive Service of Allegiance to August III, April 21, 1733, at the Thomas Church, possibly with BWV 232I, Kyrie-Gloria; and a Thanksgiving Service for the War of Polish Succession, July 6, 1734, at the Nikolas Church, possibly with BWV 248a, later parodied as BWV 248VI for Epiphany 1735.

Besides the interrelationship of these works of praise and thanksgiving is the fact that many are parodied and/or lost while Bach engaged in a two-decade process of transformation of his works and the genesis of creative legacy in the fashion of composers beginning in the Renaissance.

The year 1730 in Leipzig marked a major shift for Bach, from the composition of church-year cantata cycles to the compilation -- primarily through parody (another Renaissance tradition) -- of the culmination of his vocal legacy. In the 1730s, Bach composed a Christological cycle of major works embracing the Feast Day Oratorios for Christmas, Easter, Ascension, and possibly Pentecost (lost). He completed the annual presentation of Passion Oratorios drawn from the Gospels. Bach initiated the de-tempore Trinity Season keystone work of Christian unity, the Mass, with the Kyrie-Gloria sequence. In his last two decades, Bach primarily composed collections of instrumental works, including organ chorales and finally in the 1740s completed the Catholic Great Mass in B Minor, BWV 232. Bach in 1750 had achieved his calling of a well-regulated church music in the broadest and deepest sense possible.>>

Cantata 190 Reconstruction

The fragmentary state of the first two movements of Cantata 190 and the challenges of reconstruction are explained in Aryeh Oron’s notes to the Masaaki Suzuki BIS Recording (BCML Cantata 190 Discussions, Part 1, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190-D.htm; liner notes, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Pic-Rec-BIG/Suzuki-C21c[BIS-CD1311].pdf; BCW Recording details, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Performers/Suzuki-Rec2.htm#C21.

<<Suzuki, who made with his son the reconstruction for his recording, wrote a fascinating short article about it. His commentary illuminates the work from a perspective of the reconstructor. Here is what Suzuki wrote: First movement. Cantata BWV 190 has a special significance for all specialists in the music of Bach. Although it should be one of the most joyous of the New Year cantatas, it has been handed down in a severely damaged form, with most of the introductory chorus in the first movement and most of the instrumental parts of the second movement missing. If nothing had survived in any form, we would no doubt be prepared to resign ourselves to its loss. But, as things stand, we have some extremely full vocal parts but, for the orchestra, just two violin parts Thus one finds oneself constantly in doubt as to whether or not it is possible to perform the work at all. It is worth observing in this connection that neither Gustav Leonhardt nor Nikolaus Harnoncourt include this work in their recorded editions of the complete cantatas.

As far as the Bach Collegium Japan's series is concerned, our approach has been that, in the case of works that have been handed down in incomplete form, it is likely to be closer to Bach's intentions to attempt a recreation of a work than to perform it in its incomplete form. On the basis of this approach, what we have done is, for example, to reconstruct from obbligato parts as they might have sounded in the arias from the cantatas BWV 37, BWV 162, BWV 166 and BWV 181. But in the case of BWV 190, any attempt to perform the work would require a large-scale restoration process incomparably more extensive in scale than that involved in reconstruction of the obbligato instrumental parts in these arias. Nevertheless, as I gazed upon the wonderful extant vocal parts and the varfigures scattered through the violin parts, I increasingly began to feel that it would indeed be possible to restore the work using the surviving elements, and I made up my mind to give it a go. As Klaus Hofmann states in his commentary to the work, many people have attempted to restore the work since the early 20th century, and Ton Koopman in particular has recently recorded his own attempt at restoration [4]. But for the present restoration I determined to produce a version unique to the Bach Collegium Japan without reference to any edition apart from that of Diethard Hellmann. I entrusted the task of restoring the first movement to my son, Masato Suzuki, and I restored the second movement myself.

Any attempt to restore the work must begin with a clear grasp of how BWV 190 has been transmitted The principal surviving materials are the following:

(I) The complete full score in the composer's own hand, although comprising only the third to the seventh movements (Mus ms Bach P 127)
(2) Imperfect original parts for soprano, alto, tenor, bass and first and second violins. (Mus. ms. Bach St 88. The violin parts are not those that would have been used by the principal' players but 'Dublette' parts, i.e. copies of the principal parts used by the rank-and-file players.)>>

Summary: Diethard Hellmann, Bretikopf Ed. Preface. Nos. 3-7 of the New Year's version survive in their entirety, along with the two violin parts (doublets), the choral of Mvt. 1 (Chorus) in four parts and all the vocal parts of Mvt. 2 (Chorale & Recitative), all the parts in the hand of J.A. Kuhnau at the end of 1723.

Much credit goes to Hellmann, and Gustave Theile, for their restoration through reconstruction of important works now recognized by Koopman [4] and Suzuki [8] (both with their own reconstructions of BWV 190). Previously, only Rilling [3] was willing to venture into Bach musicological minefields, which Harnoncourt and Leonhardt shunned in their alleged "Complete Cantatas" edition, notably Vol. 44, blatantly omitting BWV 190, BWV 191, and BWV 193. Shame on them!

Turning to recent commentaries, Dürr's Cantatas says the alto aria (Mvt. 3), because of "Its homophonic string texture, articulated by echo dynamics, suggests a secular origin, though no concrete evidence of this has come to light." Somehow, Friedrich Smend's pioneering <Bach in Köthen> gets short schrift, but is discussed in detail below. David Schulenberg's entry on BWV 190 in the OCC:JSB, p. 452f, points out the similarities of this work with three movements in Cantata BWV 69(a): opening chorus full instrumentation, tenor-bass duet (Mvt. 5) use of oboe d'amore, and closing plain chorale trumpet interludes. Cantata BWV 69(a) is primarily a Town Council cantata and has festive, celebratory music very similar to New Year's cantatas as well as special celebratory events such as similar cantatas parodied for 200th anniversary of the Augsburg Confession in 1730, especially Cantata BWV 190's sister, BWV 190a, discussed below.

Cantata BWV 190 shows some close connections to both Bach's Köthen New Year's serenades and his presumed first sacred New Year's Cantata BWV 143. Cantata BWV 143 reflects both Bach's command of his vocal art achieved in Köthen, especially the accessible, expansive and technically challenging arias and choruses with their gracious dance style, and, like Cantata BWV 143, the imaginative, commanding and unparalleled use of the chorale, first perfected in the organ preludes composed before Köthen.

Smend argues that the surviving five movements of Cantata BWV 190/3-7 contain material first conceived in Köthen for a sacred New Year's cantata. Besides the two arias with dance style, including one signature duet (Mvt. 5), alternating with proclamatory, utility recitatives, Smends points to textual parallels. Most notable is the choice of particular words in the closing, summary recitative, "Now Jesus, grant," original librettist unknown (maybe J.F. Helbig?). Could this be Bach's first, perhaps partial parody, by Bach's foremost parodist poet, Picander? Smend cites the use of the word "Gesalbter" (Annointed One), no where else found in any original Leipzig work for New Year's Day, referring to a prince or his family with their "Stamm und Zweige" (trunk and branches). Smends suggests that this proto version of Cantata BWV 190 was composed soon after the birth of Prince Leopold's first child, on Sept. 21, 1722, and performed Jan. 1, 1723 as Bach's last extant work before departing Köthen for Leipzig.>>

FOOTNOTES

1 Petzoldt, Bach Kommentar: Theologisch Musikwissenschaftlicke Kommentierung der Geistlichen Vokalwerke Johann Sebastan Bachs; Vol. 2, Die Geistlichen Kantaten vom 1. Advent bis zum Trinitatisfest; Internationale Bachakademie Stuttgart (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2007: 282).
2 Cantata 190 Details and revised and updated Discography, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190.htm.
3German text and Francis Browne English translation, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV190-Eng3.htm

Douglas Cowling wrote (January 3, 2016):
Cantata 190 - :Role of Stadtpfeifer?

William Hoffman wrote:
< New Year’s Day in Bach’s performance calendar proved to be both a festive sacred and secular celebration and Bach literally pulled out all the stops to impress his employers in Leipzig with Te Deum-style music and psalm texts. He used large performing forces with three trumpets and drums, often with added flourishes, employing the civic stadtfeiffer brass ensemble and full choruses with extensive arias and recitatives as well as a variety of festive and thematic chorales. >
Do we know the Sunday/festival obligations of the Stadtpfeifer? Did they also double the voices in congregational chorales? Did the double the motets even in Advent and Lent? (elsehwhere brass colla parte does not seem to have fallen under the prohibition of independent concerted music.

Peter Smaill wrote (January 3, 2016):
Cantata 190

Amidst the splendour of the reconstructed movements it is possible to overlook the exquisite duet, the third movement " Jesu soll mein alles sein". This is performed by Sir John Eliot Gardiner with oboe d'amore to great effect. It has a mystical, rapturous quality exceptional even for Bach.

The text is a Jesus-litany, a form which also occurs in the Christmas Oratorio; in the Cantata for the name day of Jesus: Part IV (no. 38). " Immanuel, O suesses Wort!", and in the concluding chorale (No. 42) , "Jesus richte mein Beginnen." In all three instances the name of Jesus is repeated over and over again.

I wonder if other Baroque composers set this literary device in a similar fashion for this day (e.g Telemann, Stoelzel, Mattheson or C H Graun); technically I suppose called anaphora or repetitio. In the case of 190/3 the intertwining of the motifs and stretti emphasise the incantation of the name.

It is as Gottsched describes the phenomenon in his " Redekunst" : "When numerous passages of an oration begin in a like manner" Bach's cousin Walter also defines it at length in his "Musikalisches Lexicon."

William Hoffman wrote (January 4, 2016):
Peter Smaill writes:
"Amidst the splendour of the reconstructed movements it is possible to overlook the exquisite duet, the third movement " Jesu soll mein alles sein". This is performed by Sir John Eliot Gardiner with oboe d'amore to great effect. It has a mystical, rapturous quality exceptional even for Bach."
I cannot find any Gardiner recording of music from Cantata 190, whether Volume 16 or 17. If you have it, please post it.

Kim Patrick Clow wrote (January 4, 2016):
[To William Hoffman] BWV 190 was recorded at St. Bart's on Park Avenue during a pretty massive snow storm in New York City in December 1999 . Some of the concert was included on the documentary about the cantata pilgrimage @ ht://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CTzBtVDSZ2g at 1:01:50 minute marker .

The cantata in its entirety can be heard @ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SO2qmc1axqY

Warren Prestidge wrote (January 4, 2016):
[To William Hoffman] A Gardiner version of the duet from BWV 190 is available on UTube.

Peter Smaill wrote (January 4, 2016):
Cantata 190/3

This duet, of exceptional quality, is it appears a favourite of Sir John Eliot Gardiner. He includes this otherwise little-known movement in his compilation album which recorded " Alles mit Gott", BWV 1127.

This is a volume in the SDG cantata Pilgrimage series.

Claudio Di Veroii wrote (January 4, 2016):
[To Warren Prestidge] Just listening to the introduction. And I have a question for the "bachcantatati":

I see at the beginning all these "crescendos" and "diminuendos" of trombe and timpani, and I wonder (and excuse my capitals since I have no underline in email):

other than the OCCASIONAL messa di voce on a SINGLE NOTE, WHERE is there ANY evidence that ANY Baroque player performed crescendos/diminuendos, (except for special effects such as "storms" in operas)? I would REALLY like to know, since we are now accepting as matter of fact frequent crescendos/diminuendos in the performance of all baroque music, not just JSB.

Julian Mincham wrote (January 4, 2016):
[To Peter Smaill] Koopman also presents an effective reconstruction of this work.

Regarding the duet, it is not known which obbligato instrument Bach intended. The range would fit violin or oboe d'amore equally well. The character of the movement is subtley changed depending upon which instrument is chosen.._,_.___

Peter Smaill wrote (January 4, 2016):
[To Julian Mincham] Thanks Julian.

It is indeed the violin version which JEG performs, even more rapturous IMHO than the oboe d'amore interpretation!

Julian Mincham wrote (January 4, 2016):
Cantata 190/5

[To William Hoffman] Speaking from memory I think Koopman used a viola--which is very suitable although a rare obbligato instrument for Bach. Leusink does not record this cantata--possibly in the short time he had for the preparation of his cantata recordings he did not have time to do a reconstruction. I don't know what Rilling does.

Aryeh Oron wrote (January 4, 2016):
Cantata BWV 190 - Revised & updated Discography

The discography pages of Cantata BWV 190 "Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied!" (Sing to the Lord a new song!) for the New Year's Day [Circumcision of Christ, Holy Name] on the BCW have been revised and updated.
The cantata is scored for alto, tenor & bass soloists; 4-part chorus; and orchestra of 3 trumpets, timpani, 3 oboes, oboe d'amore, bassoon, 2 violins, viola & continuo. See:
Complete Recordings (11): http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190.htm
Recordings of Individual Movements (6): http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190-2.htm
The revised discography includes many listening/watching options to recordings directly from the discography pages, just below the recording details.

I also put at the BCW Home Page: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/
2 audios and 2 videos of the cantata. A short description below the audio/video image is linked to the full details at the discography pages.

I believe this is the most comprehensive discography of this cantata. If you are aware of a recording of BWV 190 missing from these pages, or want to correct/add details of a recording already presented on the BCW, please do not hesitate to inform me.
Z
You can also read on the BCW the recent discussion of the cantata in the BCML (4th round): http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190-D6.htm

Happy New Year!

John Garside wrote (January 5, 2016):
[To Julian Mincham] Rilling uses an oboe d'amore fro this duetto.

Aryeh Oron wrote (January 4, 2016):
Cantata BWV 190 - Revised & updated Discography

The discography pages of Cantata BWV 190 "Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied!" (Sing to the Lord a new song!) for the New Year's Day [Circumcision of Christ, Holy Name] on the BCW have been revised and updated.
The cantata is scored for alto, tenor & bass soloists; 4-part chorus; and orchestra of 3 trumpets, timpani, 3 oboes, oboe d'amore, bassoon, 2 violins, viola & continuo. See:
Complete Recordings (11): http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190.htm
Recordings of Individual Movements (6): http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190-2.htm
The revised discography includes many listening/watching options to recordings directly from the discography pages, just below the recording details.

I also put at the BCW Home Page: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/
2 audios and 2 videos of the cantata. A short description below the audio/video image is linked to the full details at the discography pages.

I believe this is the most comprehensive discography of this cantata. If you are aware of a recording of BWV 190 missing from these pages, or want to correct/add details of a recording already presented on the BCW, please do not hesitate to inform me.
Z
You can also read on the BCW the recent discussion of the cantata in the BCML (4th round): http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV190-D6.htm

Happy New Year!

 

Cantata BWV 190: Details & Complete Recordings | Recordings of Individual Movements
Cantata BWV 190a: Details & Complete Recordings
Discussions:
Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5 | Part 6


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