William Hoffmann wrote (October 21, 2015):
Cantata BWV 162, “Ach! ich sehe" Intro & Trinity 20 Chorales
After a three-month period, beginning in July 1723, when Bach composed only new works for his first Leipzig cycle of musical sermons, the new cantor once again was able to recycle church works composed in Weimar between 1714-1716. Solo Cantata 162, “Ach! ich sehe, itzt, da ich zur Hochzeit gehe” (Ah! I see, now as I go to the wedding) was revived for the 20th Sunday after Trinity, October 10, 1723.1 During those three summers, Bach had been unable to compose required monthly works due to mourning periods or conflicts with the Weimar Court. In all, Bach was able to utilize some 22 mostly intimate solo Weimar Sunday service works for the some 68 required in Leipzig during 1723-24.
Bach set the stage for all three cantatas for the 20th Sunday after Trinity with Cantata 162, followed by chorale Cantata BWV 180, “Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele” (Adorn thyself, O loving soul) in 1724 and soprano-Bass dialogue Cantata BWV 49, “Ich gehe und such emit Verlangen” (I go and seek with longing). With Cantata 162 Bach was able to utilize his storehouse of Weimar church cantatas, usually deficient in Trinity Time sermon cantatas because of closed mourning periods in 1714 and 1715. For the first time since early Trinity Time 1723, Bach was able to revive a work with virtually no changes. This special-form cantata exemplifies both the intimate, graceful pastoral-dance musical character of many Weimar works, beginning with the bass (? Prospective Bridegroom) dictum modified da-capo wedding journey aria, now married to a vivid Salomo Franck text that illustrates this Sunday’s sermon.
SATB Solo Cantata 162 2
The SATB solo Cantata BWV 162, “Ach! Ich sehe, jetzt, da ich zur Hockzeit gehe” (Ah, I see now, as I to the marriage go) was first performed on October 25, 1716, as part of Bach’s monthly obligation to the Weimar Court. It was repeated with the addition of a slide trumpet reinforcing the viola part in the opening bass aria and in the Movement No. 6 melody in the closing four-part chorale, as part of Bach’s first Leipzig cycle, on October 10, 1723. Cantata 162 probably was presented during the early main service of the Nikolai church before the sermon (not extant) of Superintendent Salomon Deyling (1677-1755), says Martin Petzoldt BACH Commentary, Vol. 1, Trinity Sundays.3 Both versions of Cantata 162 can be found in Ton Koopman’s Amsterdam Baroque “Complete Cantatas” CD, Vol.3, Erato 1996, BCW Recording details, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Performers/Koopman.htm#C3.
Trinity 20 Lectionary, Cantatas
All three Bach cantatas and their chorales composed for the 20th Sunday after Trinity -- BWV 162, 180, and 49 -- closely follow the Gospel and Epistle biblical teachings for this Sunday in settings that are affirmative, varied, and engaging, reflecting the Epistle emphasis on vigilance as shown in the Gospel parable of the marriage feast. The cantatas are: SATB solo Cantata BWV 162, “Ach! Ich sehe, jetzt, da ich zur Hockzeit gehe” (Ah, I see sow, as I go to the wedding); chorale Cantata BWV 180, “Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele” (Arise thee, O loving soul); and soprano-Bass dialogue Cantata BWV 49, “Ich gehe und such emit Verlangen” (I go and seek with longing).
The lectionary teaching found in that Sunday’s Epistle, Ephesians 5:15- 21 (Avoid bad company), emphasize achieving vigilance through moderation and circumspection as described in the Gospel, Matthew 22:1-14, Jesus’ Parable of the marriage of the king’s son and in inappropriately-dressed wedding feast guest (see BCW, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Read/Trinity20.htm. The German text is that of Luther’s translation published in 1545, the English is the Authorised (King James) Version 1611.
Introit Psalm for the 20th Sunday after Trinity, is Psalm 1, Beatus vir qui non abit (Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, KJV), says Petzoldt (Ibid.: 563). The full text of Psalm 1 is found at http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/k/kjv/kjv-idx?type=DIV1&byte=2190116. . Petzoldt calls Psalm 1 “Teachings and blessings of the pious.” Bach probably had access to the Orlando di Lasso 1568 six–voice setting (SSATTB) of Psalm 1 with Doxology. The setting is similar to that of the Penitential Psalms, each psalm verse is in a separate movement (Selectissimae cantiones, 4-6 vv Nuremberg).
Cantata 162 Text
The text blends graphic, pietistic sentiments with old Testament illusions to God’s heavenly throne and earthly footstool closing the prophet Isaiah (66:1) found in the opening proclamatory, festal tenor recitative and in the garments of righteousness (Isaiah 61:10) in the closing ¾ time alto-tenor rondo duet. In the middle is the tempered, refreshing fountain of the soprano (?Bride) two-part aria in 12/8 pastorale-gigue style followed by the expansive alto tour-de-force imagistic recitative closing with the Revelation 19:9 affirmation to “worthily taste the Supper of the Lamb” [Biblical references, cited in Dürr, <Cantatas of JSB>: 585-88). Cantata 162 closes with a plain chorale setting of the closing stanza of “Alle Menschen müssen sterben” (All men must die). The German text and Francis Browne English translation are found at BCW http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV162-Eng3.htm. The Scoring is: Soloists: Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass; 4-part Chorus; Orchestra: Cor da tirassi (1723), 2 violins, viola, bassoon, continuo. For a wealth of information, see Julian Mincham’s study of Cantata 162, BCW, http://www.jsbachcantatas.com/documents/chapter-22-bwv-162.htm.
The text is from Weimar Court poet Salomo Franck’s 1715 “Evangelisches Andachts Opfer” (Evangelical Sermon Offerings) printed cycle, done in collaboration with Bach. This was the most fruitful teamwork between composer and concertmaster Bach and librettist, producing some 13 of the 22 extant Sunday service cantatas composed every four weeks while the court capellemeister Samuel Drese and his son presumably produced the others. Beginning with Cantata 165, “O heiliges Geist- und Wasserbad,” for Trinity Sunday 1715, the stage was set Bach for Bach to produce standard form of opening concerted aria, alternating pairs of recitatives and arias, and a closing plachorale, similar to the standard structure in Leipzig Cycle 1. Trinity Time intimate solo works set to Franck texts were composed for Trinity 9 (BWV 168), Trinity 13 (BWV 164), Trinity 20 (BWV 162), and Trinity 23 (BWV 163).
Cantata 162 Details
Chorale text, “Alle Menschen müssen sterben,” author is Johann Rosenmüller/Johann Georg Albinius (Mvt. 6), 1652, seven stanzas (German text and Francis Browne English translation, BCW http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale132-Eng3.htm. The associated melody is “Jesu, der du meine Seele,” (1st Alternate Chorale Melody - Zahn: 6783; details, BCW http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Jesu-der-du-meine-Seele.htm).
The movements of Cantata 162, types, scoring, incipits, key, and meter are:
1. Aria concerted in three sections with dal segno [Bass; Corno da tirarsi, Violino I/II, Viola, Fagotto, Continuo]: “Ach! ich sehe, / Itzt, da ich zur Hochzeit gehe, / Wohl und Wehe”(Ah! I see / now, as I go to the wedding, / prosperity and misery); a minor Weimar original; 4/4.
2. Recitative secco [Tenor, Continuo]: O großes Hochzeitfest, / Darzu der Himmelskönig / Die Menschen rufen läßt” (O great wedding feast, / to which the king of heaven / has summoned mankind); C Major to d minor; 4/4.
3. Aria three-part ritornelli [Soprano, Continuo; ?obbligato instrument]: “Jesu, Brunnquell aller Gnaden, / Labe mich elenden Gast” (Jesus, source of all mercies, / refresh me, your wretched guest); d minor to e minor; 12/8 pastorale-gigue style).
4. Recitative secco [Alto, Continuo]: “Mein Jesu, laß mich nicht / Zur Hochzeit unbekleidet kommen” (My Jesus, do not let me / come to the wedding without the proper clothes): a minor to C Major; 4/4.
5. Aria ABBCAC with ritornelli [Duetto (Alto, Tenor), Continuo]: “In meinem Gott bin ich erfreut! / Die Liebesmacht hat ihn bewogen” (In my God I delight! / Die Liebesmacht hat ihn bewogen); C Major to D Major; ¾ time.
6. Plain Chorale [S, A, T, B; Corno da tirarsi e Violino I col Soprano, Violino II coll'Alto, Viola col Tenore, Continuo]: “Ach, ich habe schon erblicket / Diese große Herrlichkeit” (Ah, I have already glimpsed / this great splendour); a minor to b minor; 4/4.
Chorale ‘Alle Menschen müssen sterben’
The Franck 1715 text closes with the final Stanza 7 of the Johann Rosenmüller 1652 funeral text setting of “Alle Menschen müssen sterben” (All Men Must Die), also attributed to Johann Georg Albinius. Stanza 7 begins, “Ach, ich habe schon erblicket/ Diese große Herrlichkeit” (Ah, I have already glimpsed/ this great splendour). Francis Browne’s 2009 English translation of the text is found I n BCW, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale132-Eng3.htm with the two associated melodies, titled “Jesu, der du meine Selle” (Jesus, Thou of My Soul).
The chorale “Alle Menschen müssen sterben” is found in< Das Neu Leipzig Gesangbuch> (NLGB) of 1682 of Gottfried Vopelius as No. 383 under “Death and Dying” but is not designated as the hymn for any particular Sunday of the church year in Bach’s favored hymn book.
The hymn is related to the three designated melodies and varied settings of “Jesu, der du meine Selle,” discussed at length in the Thomas Braatz and Aryeh Oron 2006/08 BCW article, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Jesu-der-du-meine-Seele.htm. The original text of “Jesu, der du meine Selle” of Johann Rist is first found in 1641 and is usually listed as a “Jesus Hymn,” a category of Epiphany Time <de tempore> hymns not found in the <NLGB>. The hymn as published in 1651 has the Rist text set to the melody known as “Alle Menschen müssen sterben,” composed by Christoph Anton.
Chorale Melody Source
The closing chorale of Cantata BWV 162 uses designated Melody No. 2 (1st Alternate). The melody source is unknown and its use is found only once in Johann Gottfried Walther (1684-1748), Chorale Prelude for Organ “Alle Menschen müssen sterben” (using Zahn 6783) in DDT 26/27, p. 32 (cited in Dürr, <Cantatas of JSB>: 589 and possibly known in Weimar c.1716).
Trinity Time Final Quarter
The final quarter of the Trinity Time mini-cycles on the meaning of being a Christian emphasizes the “last things” (eschatology) couched in symbols of the annual Coming and Sacrifice of Jesus Christ. The final cycle theme is the “Completion of the Kingdom of Righteousness” involving fulfillment and rewards. This Cycle of Last Things closes a complete year of instruction and emphasizes the promises/warnings of eternal life [ref.: Paul Zeller Strodach, <The Church Year> (United Lutheran Publication House, Philadelphia PA, 1924: 239)].
While the teachings in the final Trinity Time quarter of six Sundays are generally grim and harsh, this 20th Sunday after Trinity offers contrast and respite for the Christian believer. Bach responds accordingly with particularly compelling pastoral music reflecting vivid imagery. The Gospel of the Marriage Feast, “prompts many figurative references to the soul as bride, to travel, to clothing and to food, such as Jesus as the ‘bread of life’, and Bach came up with three settings all marked in their way by this imagery, each one creating a distinctive sensuous atmosphere by means of scoring, vocal writing, special sonority, or a mixture of all three,” says John Elliott Gardiner in “Cantatas for the 20th Sunday after Trinity,” liner notes to the Soli Deo Gloria Bach Pilgrimage 2000, in http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Pic-Rec-BIG/Gardiner-P11c[sdg168_gb].pdf; BCW Recording details, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Performers/Gardiner-Rec3.htm#P11.
Cantata 162 “compares life with a journey to a nuptial feast,” says Gardiner. Librettist Franck “has a love of poetic compounds and polar opposites,” he observes in his synopsis of this musical sermon. Alfred Dürr in <The Cantatas of JSB> (Ibid.: 587) provides a summary description of each movement: “After an introductory reference to the decisive significance of God’s invitation – ‘weal or woe’ hangs on my reply – [bass aria], the text considers God’s great love which is made manifest in this invitation (no. 2), asks Jesus for the refreshing Bread of Life (no. 3) and to help the guest prove worthy of the invitation (no. 4) and ends with the joyful hope that ‘after this life’ in heaven, God will grant a robe of honor to the winner, whom He has made righteous through Jesus’s death (no. 5). The same reflections are taken up again in the concluding chorale . . . . ”
Bolstering this is Bach’s choice of quite appropriate, distinct, popular chorales that increasingly move towards the affirmative: “Alle Menschen müssen sterben” (All Men Must Die, Cantata 162), “Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele” (Adorn thyself, O loving soul, chorale Cantata 180), and “Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern” (How lovely shines the morning star, Cantata 49). All three hymns have endured through various usages in the Church Year, were translated by English writer Catherine Winkworth, and are still sung today. “Alle Menschen,” known as “All Men Living Are But Mortal” is found in the Death & Burial section of the <The Lutheran Hymnal> 1941 Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (St. Louis, Concordia Publishing). “Schmücke dich” is used as two Communion hymns, “Now We Join in Celebration,” No. 462, and a “Soul, Adorn Yourself with Gladness,” No. 488 in the current American <Evangelical Lutheran Worship> hymn book (Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2006). The same hymn book also lists “Wie schön leuchtet” twice in the <omne tempore> sections as “O Morning Star, How Fair and Bright,” No. 308, “Time after Epiphany,” and “O Holy Spirit, Enter In,” No. 786, “Trust & Guidance.”
As for the remaining texts of the three cantatas, Bach in 1716 utilized his talented Weimar librettist Salomo Franck for Cantata BWV 162, in 1724 the still-unknowCycle 2 chorale cantata group utilitarian librettist in the last of four cycle texts for Cantata BWV 180, and a composite text using older poets and biblical quotations as assembled possibly by Picander in 1726 in Cantata 49. The cantatas composed for the 20th Sunday after Trinity proved to be serendipitous for Bach.
Chorale Cantata 180, ‘Schmücke dich’4
Chorale Cantata BWV 180, “Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele” (Adorn thyself, O loving soul) explores and exploits Johann Franck’s <omnes tempore> 1649 Eucharistic hymn in nine verses. Verses 2-7 address hunger and fear resolved in the Eucharist, says Peter Williams <Organ Music of JSB, 351f)), Johann Crüger melody 1649 (similar to Geneva Psalter tune. Bach uses pastoral recorder and oboes, plus the violoncello piccolo in all the other arias and recitatives to heavenly affect, bolstered by music of dance-like character. See Julian Mincham’s study, BCW http://www.jsbachcantatas.com/documents/chapter-21-bwv-180-l.htm
The hymn “Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele” is not found in the <NLGB> or contemporary Leipzig hymn schedules, notes Günter Stiller in JSB and Liturgical Life in Leipzig (<Ibid., 248), but “was possibly also inspired for this Sunday by the Wagner hymnal (8 vols., Leipzig, 1697), throughout extolling the mystery of the Sacrament of the Altar.” Another possible Bach source is the 1666 Arnstadt Hymn Book, with the hymn designated for Trinity 20 (Williams, <Ibid.>)
Chorale Cantata BWV 180 may have been reperformed on the 20thth Sunday after Trinity, October 31, 1734, possibly as part of performance of the entire second cycle. In 1725, the 20th Sunday after Trinity occurred on October 14 during Bach’s third Trinity Time in Leipzig when he composed only a handful of new cantatas. It is doubtful that he presented any of his own music on this Sunday in 1725.
Soul-Jesus Dialogue Cantata BWV 49 5
Bach literally sets solo Cantata BWV 49, “Ich gehe und suche mit Verlangen” (I go and seek with longing) as a “Cantata Dialogus” (his description) between Bride (soprano, Soul) and Bridegroom (bass, Jesus). It utilizes another composite text near the end of the third Leipzig cantata cycle, for the 20th Sunday after Trinity, on November 3, 1726. Like previous cycle cantatas for late Trinity Time, Cantata 49 shows the influence of established cantata poets, particularly theologian Erdmann Neumeister with emblematic biblical references, and a closing, interpolated chorale, “Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern” (How lovely shines the morning star), as assimilated by Bach’s textual collaborator (possibly Picander).
Like previous Cycle 3 Trinity Time cantatas, the music also opens with recycled instrumental material from Bach’s previous post at Köthen, here perhaps originating as the opening movement of a viola concerto.
Cantata 49 culminates in the final, seventh stanza of “Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern”: “Wie bin ich doch so herzlich froh” (How full I am therefore of heartfelt joy), with its theme of eschatological expectation amid vigilance anticipating the new church year of rebirth and renewal. The first six lines in long notes in the soprano are inserted between the first two lines of the biblical dictum opening the final movement (No. 6), a love duet: “I have loved you forever, and [CHORALE <Stollen> A’A] How full I am . . . ] Therefore I draw you to me” (Jeremiah 31:3). See Julian Micham’s fascinating study of Cantata BWV 49 and comparisons with BWV 162 and 180: BCW, http://www.jsbachcantatas.com/documents/chapter-30-bwv-49.htm.
Chorale ‘Wie schön leuchtet den Morgenstern’
“Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern” with its utilitarian and cyclic influences is one of Bach’s most utilized chorales in various formats. Its primary usage is for the 20th Sunday after Trinity, Stiller (Ibid, 246) points out, when it was “the hymn of the day in Leipzig and also enjoyed high priority in the Dresden hymn schedules around 1750.” In the <NLGB> of 1682 it also is designated to be sung on the final 27th Sunday after Trinity. As hymn No. 313, it is found in the <omnes tempore> section, “Word of God & Christian Church,” where it is described as the “wedding song of the heavenly Bridegroom of Jesus Christ,” based on Psalm 45, < Ercutavit cor meum> (My heart is stirring with a noble song) to King David, as well as Solomon’s Old Testament book, Song of Songs.
The author of both the seven-stanza text and melody is Philipp Niccolai, dating to 1597. Francis Browne’s BCW English translation is found in http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale015-Eng3.htm. Bach utilized all the verses and the melody is found in Cantatas: BWV 1/1, BWV 1/6, BWV 36/4, BWV 37/3, BWV 49/6, BWV 61/6, BWV 172/6, BWV Anh 199/3 for Annunciation Advent, Ascension, Trinity 20, and Pentecost respectively; in plain Chorale BWV 436; and in Miscellaneous Organ-chorale: BWV 739. Further information is found at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wie_schön_leuchtet_der_Morgenstern.
Other Bach Trinity 20 Opportunities
+For the 20th Sunday after Trinity on October 19, 1727, there was no performance during the mourning period of Sept. 7, 1727, to Jan. 8, 1728, for deceased Saxon Queen Christiane Eberhardine.
+For the 20th Sunday after Trinity, October 10, 1728, the Picander printed annual church cantata cycle, lists P-64, “Ach, rufe mich bald” (Ah, rest me soon), contains no closing chorale
+On the 20th Sunday after Trinity, October 30, 1735, Bach probably performed a Stözel two-part cantata as part of the cycle “Saitenspiele testeddes Hertzens” (Music Playing of the Heart), text by Benjamin Schmolck, with two chorale settings not identified.
+About October 21, 1736, Bach may have performed Stözel’s two-part cantata, “Wie sich ein Brautigan freuet über die Braut” (As the Bridegroom is joyous over the Bride,” from the cantata cycle “Das Namenbuch Christi,” (Book of Names of Christ), Schmolck text, No. 63. No musical source with the presumed chorales is extant.
In addition to the three Bach cantatas -- BWV 162, 180, 49 -- for the 20th Sunday after Trinity, one other, Cantata BWV 45, “Es ist dir gesagt, Menschen, was gut ist” (It is told you, man, what is good), composed for the Eighth Sunday after Trinity, also is appropriate for this Sunday in the original single-year lectionary, according to the <Evangelisches Kirchen Gesangbuch> 1996, p. 76.
Other Trinity 20 Chorale Usages
Besides “Wie schön leuchtet den Morgenstern,” The <NLGB of 1682 lists the following chorales as designated for the 20th Sunday after Trinity:
+“Ach Gott von Himmel siehe darein” (Ah God, look down from heaven); details, BCW, Musical Context, Motets & Chorale, Trinity 2, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/LCY/M&C-Trinity2.htm.
+”Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl" (The unknown mouth speaks well); details, BCW, Musical Context, Motets & Chorales, Trinity 1, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/LCY/M&C-Trinity1.htm.
+”Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns halt” (If God does not abide in us); details, BCW, Musical Context, Motets & Chrorales. Trinity 8, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/LCY/M&C-Trinity8.htm.
+”Wachet auf ruft uns die Stimme” (Sleeper’s Awake); see Cantata BWV 140, for Trinity 27, BCW discussion, October 21, 2012.
+”Sie ist mir lieb, die werthe Magd” (Dear is to me the holy Maid); see <Hymns of Martin Luther>, http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=754&chapter=87936&layout=html&Itemid=27
Bach’s hymnbook reuses four hymns from early Trinity Time as familiar hymns are reused once again in late Trinity Time. Only one new hymn is int: “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (Trinity 23 and 27). Two are repeated for Trinity 27: “Wie schön leuchtet den Morgenstern” and ”Wachet auf ruft uns die Stimme.”
Cantatas 162, 180, 49: Provenance
The 1750 estate division of the manuscripts of Bach’s vocal music shows a uniform pattern in the distribution of the three Leipzig church cycles of cantatas composed for the final quarter of Trinity Time. For the first cycle, presented in 1723-24, beginning with Cantata 48 for the 19th Sunday after Trinity, first-born son Friedemann received both the score and parts sets while none of the remaining music of Cycle 1 Trinity Time cantatas, including BWV 49, was found in the 1790 estate of second-born son Emmanuel. There is no deviation in the distribution of Cantata 180 in the so-called Chorale Cantata Cycle 2: Friedemann received virtually all the scores and step-mother Anna Magdalena the parts sets then given to the Thomas Church. In Cycle 3, beginning at the 13th Sunday after Trinity with Cantata 164, Emanuel received virtually all the scores and Friedemann the parts sets.
Subsequently, concerning the provenance of Cantata BWV 162, 180, and 49, there is no record for Cantata 162 (see Thomas Braatz’s “Provenance” BCW article, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Ref/BWV162-Ref.htm). The score and parts sets presumably where inherited by Friedemann, while only the score or parts survive for the remaining Cycle 1 Trinity Time Cantatas 89, 60, 90, and 70.
The score of Cantata 180 was available for copying for a price in Leipzig publisher Breitkopf’s initial catalog of 1761, presumably available from Friedemann’s manuscript in Halle, who would have shared the payment. The Amalien Bibliothek in Berlin purchased a copy of the score. There is no record that former Bach student and Thomas Prefect Christoph Friedrich Penzel copied and performed Cantata 180. There is a score copy of Cantata 49 in the hand of Emmanuel’s main copyist in Hamburg, H. Michel, suggesting a possible performance.
1 Cantata 162 BCW Details and Revised and Updated Discography, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV162.htm. Score Vocal & Piano [1.49], http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Scores/BWV162-V&P.pdf, Score BGA [1.44 MB], http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BGA/BWV162-BGA.pdf. References: BGA XXXIII (Cantatas 161-170, Franz Wüllner 1887), NBA KB I/25 (Trinity 20 cantatas, Ulrich Bartels 1997), Bach Compendium BC A 148, Zwang: K 22.
2 Original BCW source: “Musical Context of Bach Cantatas, Motets & Chorales for 20th Sunday after Trinity, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/LCY/M&C-Trinity20.htm.
3 Petzoldt, Bach Kommentar: Die geistlichen Kantaten des 1. Bis 27. Trinitas-Sontagges, Vol. 1; Theologisch Musikwissenschaftlicke Kommentierung der Geistlichen Vokalwerke Johann Sebastan Bachs, Internationale Bachakademie Stuttgart (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2004: 567).
4 (For more details of Cantata 180, see previous BCML Discussion Part 4, October 12, 2014, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV180-D4.htm).
5 For more details of Cantata 49, see previous BCML Discussion Part 4, April 13, 2014, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV49-D4.htm.