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Cantata BWV 140
Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme
Discussions - Part 1

wachet auf!

Nicholas Baumgartner wrote (December 22, 1996):
Has anyone heard the tenor chorale in cantata BWV 140, in which the upper strings have that countermelody to die for? if not, listen to it. now. it's the fourth movement of the cantata, J.E. Gardiner [27] does a good job, and it's one of those melodies which makes you say, "you know, that bach could really crank out a good tune once in a while!

Kirk McElhearn wrote (December 23, 1996):
(To Nicholas Baumgartner) I just put it on; it is nice. Did you notice how much the strings soud like Purcell?

Dean Lampe wrote (December 23, 1996):
Wanted you all to know that I have enjoyed the recent activity on this list. Let's keep it up.

Also, a reminder to get out your recordings of the Christmas Oratorio and JSB's Magnificat. The Magnificat, IMHO, was certainly some of the old master's greatest music!! The Sicut locutus est and Gloria Patri always deserve a couple extra knotches of volume on my stereo. (Not that the whole thing doesn't.)

Archimedes wrote (December 24, 1996):
< has anyone heard the tenor chorale in cantata 140, in which the upper strings have that countermelody to die for? >
Yes; wonderful. It seems to be one of those tunes that you can hardly screw up, right? Well, try the Blanche Moyse Chorale on Musical Heritage Society [28], coupled with the Magnificat (BWV 243). She has it sung by a tenor solo, and it does not work that way (IMO). It's wonderful to have the whole tenor line sing it.

 

Previous Messages

Jane Newble (January 21, 2000):
Yesterday I was listening to the three performances of 140 I have (Richter [16], Werner [14] and Rilling [20]), and the Werner one is on the 2CD Ultima label. But it does not say in the booklet who the bass is for this cantata. Does anyone know?

Wim Huisjes wrote (January 22, 2000):
Erato is a bit sloppy in their booklets they enclose with the Werner cantata recordings. For example, too often 2 sopranos are mentioned, while clearly one and the same is singing. According to the Erato CD booklet I have, Franz Kelch is the bass in BWV 140. However, on the LP sleeve Jakob Stämpfli is mentioned. AFAIK Werner recorded BWV 140 only once, so I can't give you an answer off-hand. I don't know Kelch's voice very well, but when I have time I'll do some listening and figure out which one it is.

Aryeh Oron wrote (January 31, 2000):
I know it is a little bit late, but I received my copy of Fritz Werner's Bach Cantatas on Ultima/Erato label (3984-28166-2) [14] yesterday afternoon (ordered from amazon.uk). The double CD includes Cantatas BWV 140, 119, 90, 147, 85, 28. I have not listened to it yet. But on the back cover and on the internal booklet it is written clearly that the Bass in BWV 140 is Jakob Stämpfli.

 

BWV 140 in English?

Michael Grover wrote (May 4, 2001):
Quick question tonight, folks, and I think I already know the answer, but...
Does anyone know if BWV 140 has ever been recorded in English?

 

Bach-Cantatas

Luzia Sebesta wrote (October 27, 2002):
Does anybody know who wrote the text of the Bach-cantatas? Especially No.140: "Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme", but also generally.

Jaap Hardy wrote (October 27, 2002):
[To Luzia Sebesta] The text of BWV 140 (nr. 1,4,7: Philipp Nicolai 1599; 2,3,5,6: unbekannter Dichter).
You can find all writers of texts on www.cs.ualberta.ca/~wfb/bach.html

Ben Crick wrote (October 28, 2002):
[To Luzia Sebesta] The hymn – “Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme• was penned by Philipp Nicolai, 1556-1608.

Tex Oki wrote (October 28, 2002):
[To Luzia Sebesta] BWV 140
Anonimus (Henrici ?) 2, 3, 5, 6, Nicolai 1, 4, 7,

Aryeh Oron wrote (October 28, 2002):
[To Luzia Sebesta] Look at the Bach Cantatas Website: http://www.bach-cantatas.com
The page of Cantata BWV 140: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV140.htm

Luzia Sebesta wrote (October 29, 2002):
[To Jaap Hardy ] Many thanks for the link to the website mentioned below! It is really fine to have all the cantatas at one place!

André Gerlo wrote (November 4, 2002):
[To Luzia Sebesta] Cantata BWV 140 : autor unknown. These are all Bach's autors of texts (only cantatas) and I send it "attach" (click on attach).

Christophe Chazot wrote (November 4, 2002):
[To Luzia Sebesta] The writer of the text of BWV 140 is unknown, but this text is an arrangement of a poem written by Philipp Nicolai in 1599. Nos 1, 4 and 7 of BWV 140 are directly taken from this poem.

Bach used texts from several writers or poets, with or without modifications, thus it is quite difficult to find a "general rule" as you asked. One of his main providers was Henrici, who signed as Picander.

 

BWV 140 - text / BWV 140 - Aufgang (rising) vs. Ausgang (going forth, exit)

Dick Wursten wrote (November 23, 2002):
BWV 140 (wachet auf) is coming... (22/12)
I'm studying the text and have three preliminary questions

1. In Mvt. 2, 4th line:
<Sein Ausgang eilet aus der Höhe>
I hear a quotation of Luke 1:78... but there I read: <sein Aufgang aus der Höhe>
Is there a possibility that we have a misreading of s <> f, which occurs very often in old-style writing.... Can someone check this with the original?

2. in Mvt. 5, last line.
<und meine Rechte (sc. Arm) soll dich küssen>
(quote from Song of Songs 8:3)
Is it possible that in old-German 'küssen' also can mean: 'embrace' ?

3. in Mvt. 7, one but last line
Io, Io.
Is it correct to understand these sounds as shouts of joy like <Hip, hip, hurray> (Hurray, hurray > Francis Browne in his English translation:
http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV140-Eng3.htm )

I would be very grateful if someone could shed some light on these my questions..

Pieter Pannevis wrote (November 23, 2002):
[To Dick Wursten] To your questions Dick,

My translations does clearly state: "sein Ausgang eilet aus der Hohe" ( is coming from above)
My old-german is rather non exixtent however the translation i'm quoting from is ('85 Yehuda Shapiro) saying : "..and my right hand shall embrace you..."
As we see in former Sovjet republics that there is a gesture as it should look like the movement of "kissing" ( on the cheeks), but is actually just an embrace....so

There is no clear translation to be found for "io"
It may sound like "joy"what the choir is stating and it must have a rhyming efect on "in dulci jubilo", neither the Saphiro nor the Lesieur ( for the French translation) gives something else like "io".
wonder how "hurray, hurray will match with "in dulci jubilo"

Thomas Braatz wrote (November 23, 2002):
Dick Wursten asks:
< 1. In Mvt. 2, 4th line:
<Sein Ausgang eilet aus der Höhe>
I hear a quotation of Luke 1:78... but there I read: <sein Aufgang aus der Höhe>
Is there a possibility that we have a misreading of s <> f, which occurs very often in old-style writing.... Can someone check this with the original? >
The biblical text Greek original has 'anatolay' [bad transliteration, I know) which means rising (as of the rising of the sun). This has been interpreted variously in various bible translations:
oriens
the dayspring
the dawn
the sunrise
the daybreak
the rising sun
the day (shall dawn)
das aufstrahlende Licht
das aufgehende Licht
der Aufgang
(nowhere does Luther have 'Ausgang')
de Opgang
Since Luther does not have 'Ausgang', we will have to look elsewhere for a solution to this problem:
'Ausgang' as it appears in text of the cantata could possibly be an interpretative anomaly which can be assigned to the unknown librettist's paraphrase of the Nicolai chorale in which this word/phrase does not occur as such. In these free paraphrases the Bach librettists often draw upon other phrases and images from the Bible. The actual text containing this word/phrase, the only bona fide, authentic version thereof appears only in the tenor part and possibly in the continuo parts. The primary copyist for this cantata is Johann Ludwig Krebs ("der Krebs in dem Bach" -"the crab in the brook") whom Bach personally praised for his musical talents. Whether he also had problems reading J. S. Bach's handwriting, we do not know. The fact is that, since this cantata exists only in the set of original parts (no score available - we are unable to look at the single instance of this word in the score as Bach wrote it), we have only two possibilities for comparison: the tenor and one of the continuo parts, both of which Krebs copied (the others - the 2nd continuo part and the bassono were copied by unknown, and probably for that reason, less reliable copyists - and also, these parts were often copied/transposed from the 1st continuo part and not from the original score.) However, Bach most often, but not always, corrects the parts from which the music was played and he does, when necessary correct the text as well. Here no such correction occurs even though there are two clear-cut examples where such a correction should have taken place.

Without having access to the original score, we have to assume that the librettist intended this interpretation ("Ausgang" instead of "Aufgang") in his free paraphrase of the chorale text. It is less likely that a 'penmanship' problem such as the misreading of the old German script occurred here. In any case, the reference that I gave (in my discussion of BWV 90) to the interchange of the single 's' and the double 's' or 'sz' is of a different nature than that caused by the misreading of 's' for an 'f'. The latter, nevertheless, is also very critical since the appearance or lack of a seemingly insignificant mark (the equivalent perhaps of forgetting to dot an 'i' in English) can make the difference between one meaning of a word and another.

Io = an interjection meaning in this context an expression of joy. In other contexts it can mean astonishment or encouragement or incitement (DWB)

Thomas Braatz wrote (November 23, 2002):
Some additional thoughts on this matter:

1) Since the librettist has remained unknown until the present day, there is always a slight, unfortunately not to be ascertained with certainty, possibility that Bach himself composed this text. In some instances where Bach parodied another work of his based on the text of a known librettist, but no longer had this poet at his disposable (proximity, death of librettist, pressure of time), the NBA editors carefully hint at the possibility that Bach may also have written the text for the new recitatives that were required by the new occasion for the cantata. Somewhere else I had also read that a certain chorale cantata text (where only recitatives were required in addition to the already existing verses of the chorale) might possibly be attributed to Bach himself. Again, there is no firm evidence, but if even one such instance could be proven, then a number of other Bach cantata libretti might more easily be considered as possibly being Bach's own handiwork.

2) Assuming, for instance, that Bach did write or possibly modify the text to change the biblical 'Aufgang' to 'Ausgang', it might make sense to incorporate such a change in the text. The reasons for this could be based on the significance of the end of the liturgical year and the beginning of a new one. The end of the church year places quite a bit of emphasis on death and the end of time with all the concomitant horrors, while, at the same time, it begins pointing with hope toward the commencement of the new church year (Advent.) The hope of Christ appearing on earth symbolized by the rising sun is the interim picture that remains in the minds of the congregation (in Leipzig) but most of the Advent season is devoid of concertante Advent music. As far as Bach is concerned for his Leipzig performances of the cantatas, the jump almost immediately goes from the 1st of Advent to Christmas. The period of rising leads more abruptly to the celebration of the appearance of the Jesus child on earth. A different image is needed to convey this initial stage in Christ's coming to this earth, not one that is still rising, but one that has already gone forth, has exited the heavenly realms.

3) Another reason that could be posited is based on an organizational, developmental factor. The 1st recitative (Mvt. 2) comes after the 1st vs. of the Nicolai hymn which speaks of awakening and preparing those who are to meet the bridegroom (Christ) here on earth. In order for the duets between the soul and Christ (mvts. 3 & 6) to take place, it is necessary to ease the transition from Christ rising in the sky like the sun to a more palpable Christ who, now having appeared on earth and no longer in the heavens, is physically on his way here as a bridegroom going to fetch his bride(s) that have come to meet him. For this the choice of 'Ausgang' is preparatory and more apt than 'Aufgang' for the ensuing duet in which both bride and bridegroom are about to meet on the physical plane and declare their undying love for each other (Mvt. 6).

4) Notwithstanding the original biblical text on which this phrase is based, it does not really make much sense to say "Sein Aufgang eilet aus der Höhe" [He is hurrying to rise up even higher 'out of' heaven.] This point is more important than any of the preceding points that I have made and probably led immediately to the correct choice in the mind of the librettist. The use of 'eilet' in this context is problematical because the biblical text reads differently (there is no indication of 'to hurry'):

whereby the dayspring from on high hath visited us
by which the dawn from heaven has come to us
whereby the sunrise shall visit us from on high
the light from heaven is about to break upon us
In which the rising from on high did look upon us
durch welche uns besucht hat der Aufgang aus der Höhe
mit der uns der Aufgang aus der Höhe besuchen wird
wird uns besuchen das aufstrahlende Licht aus der Höhe
door welke ons bezocht heeft de opgang uit de hoogte
waarmede de Opgang uit de hoogte naar ons zal omzien

Francis Browne wrote (November 25, 2002):
Dick Wursten, as so often, has raised some interesting points about the text of the cantatas.

1: I can add nothing to what Tom Braatz said with thoroughness and erudition about Aufgang/ Ausgang.

2: Dick's second point was :
und meine Rechte (sc. Arm) soll dich küssen>
(quote from Song of Songs 8:3)
Is it possible that in old-German 'küssen' also can mean: 'embrace' ? In my translation I was tempted to translate ' embrace' but could find no justification for understanding the German in this way. My own impression is that Bach, more attuned to the literary tastes of his time then is possible for us, would have found this somewhat strained use of 'küssen' acceptable.

3: Dick also asked:
in Mvt. 7, one but last line
Io, Io.
Is it correct to understand these sounds as shouts of joy like <Hip, hip, hurray> (Hurray, hurray > Francis Browne in his English translation:
http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV140-Eng3.htm )
Tom has cited the DWB on io. I can only add that my German dictionary had nothing on the phrase and I assumed it was to be understood as a Latin phrase. This is perhaps most familiar as a joyful shout in Catullus' epithalamia (marriage hymns) but is found elsewhere in classical Latin from Plautus to Martial. The Oxford Latin Dictionary defines io as follows: 'A more or leritual exclamation uttered under the stress of strong emotion and invoking a god or divine power. There is a similar Greek cry iou - used often by Euripides and Aristophanes - defined in my lexicon as a loud cry expressive of sorrow, joy or surprise. I am unable to check but it would be interesting to know if 'io' is used in the vulgate or in medieval Latin hymns.

'Hurray' does seem a flat translation - the problem is that I and my phlegmatic fellow countrymen have never been much in the habit of making whoopee in the streets and uttering shouts of joy (or lamentation), and so our language - in other ways so rich and various- seems to lack words to translate the many Greek and Latin words that refer to loud cries of emotion. I suspect other people do this sort of thing better.

Dick Wursten wrote (November 26, 2002):
IO, IO
(one but last line BWV 140)

Francis Browne wrote:
< I am unable to check but it would be interesting to know if 'io' is used in the vulgate or in medieval Latin hymns. >
RE: I didnot find IO in my e-Vulgate
There certainly must be an e-medievalhymnbook somewhere on the net... >

Also From Francis Browne:
< 'Hurray' does seem a flat translation - the problem is that I and my phlegmatic fellow countrymen have never been much in the habit of making whoopee in the streets and uttering shouts of joy (or lamentation), and so our language - in other ways so rich and various- seems to lack words to translate the many Greek and Latin words that refer to loud cries of emotion. I suspect other people do this sort of thing better. >

RE: The expressions of joy I know in Dutch are either also very flat (Hoerah) or sound very stupid because they were used too often as 'stoplap' (= Dutch for 'a trick to fill a poetic line with the correct number of syllables, or to provide an easy rhyme') in patriotic songs about brave Dutch sailors (mostly young) on the ocean, defying the elements, defeating complete spanish armadas on their own and 'en passant' exploring new worlds (or was it exploiting?). After WWII these songs became a little obsolete.

But, since there are no valable alternatives, I know of, I picked a 'shout of joy' from one of those songs, which - yoepie (modern exclamatian, not much better than the old ones) - also provides a perfect rhyme with the last line of the hymn (which in itself is a songtitle BTW: in dulci jubilo), an achievement of which of course I am very proud:

HO JO, HO JO

This fine line (only for the Dutch: Klim ferm in 't want, hojo - Drs. P ) will appear one of these days in the appropriate part of this wonderful database about Bachcantatas, when I will have completed the Dutch translation of BWV 140, which is not so difficult because the cantata intself consists 3/7 of a hymn and the 4/7 of Scripturequotations or allusions.

Matthew Neugebauer wrote (November 26, 2002):
< it would be interesting to know if 'io' is used in the vulgate or in medieval Latin hymns.>
My search of the Latin Vulgate (or Bibla Sacra Vulgata) on biblegateway.com didn't turn out any 'io's, nor did my search of Luther's translation (Luther Bibel). Out of curiosity, I checked the Plautdietsch (Reimer), and the search didn't turn up anything either.

Klaus Langrock wrote (November 26, 2002):
This stanza "Des sind wir froh io io in dulci jubilo" was later transformed in "Des jauchzen wir und singen dir das Halleluja für und für" and is still in use. "Io io" is an expression af joy. Similar transformations happened some more times:
"Von 12 Perlen sind die Pforten an deiner Stadt, wir sind Consorten der Engel hoch um deinen Thron" is now "Von 12 Perlen sind die Tore an deiner Stadt, wir stehn im Chore der Engel hoch um deinen Thron" and verse 3: "Gloria sei dir gesungen mit Menschen und englischen Zungen" was replaced by "Gloria sei dir gesungen mit Menschen- und mit Engelszungen"

Matthew Neugebauer wrote (November 26, 2002):
[To Klaus Langrock] Are you refferring to modern Lutheran hymnody? Fascinating!

Andrew Oliver wrote (November 26, 2002):
< I am unable to check but it would be interesting to know if 'io' is used in the vulgate or in medieval Latin hymns. >
I don't know the answer to the above question, but I note that the second verse of the well known christmas carol 'Ding dong ! merrily on high' reads:

E'en so here below, below
let steeple bells be swungen,
And i-o, i-o, i-o,
by priest and people sungen.

These words are by G.R.Woodward. What prompted him to use the term 'i-o' I cannot say.

Dick Wursten wrote (November 26, 2002):
[To Matthew Neugebauer] IMHO the 'amendations' of the Nicolai-hymns ('Wachte auf' and 'Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern') in modern German hymnbooks are no amendations at all, but proofs of a 'bourgeois' mentality: The so called 'modern' and 'enlightened' christian feels 'ashamed' of the direct, highly emotional and very concrete language and imagery which Nicolai uses as a poet in 1599 (and which is the power of his poetry).

F.i.: fear of being 'laughed at' when singing: Des sind wir froh / io io / Ewig in dulci jubilo must have led to the replacement with the very cliche and very flat statement: Des jauchzen wir / und singen dir / das Halleluja für und für. The poet Nicolai would turn in his grave, if he heard his 'joyful lines' being corrupted in this way.

F.i.: The replacement of 'Konsorten' must be based on the assumption that this word might convey a negative connotation (in modern German it has, in old german ??).. Oh, oh, help... But why be so worried: ... Is the modern man so stupid that he can not conclude for himself that the negative connotation of 'Konsorten' is absent, because the lines talk about being part of the 'consort of Angels around Gods Throne' ! Gone is the alliteration 'Perlen sind die Pforten'..

The same by the way happens with the medieval christmas songs, like 'in dulci jubilo'. The 'naiv' juxtaposition of german-latin is the charm of these songs. Once translated almost nothing is left...

Thomas Braatz wrote (November 26, 2002):
io io

The use of this interjection is more prevalent than I had thought. Perhaps G. R. Woodward came across some of these Christmas carols from earlier centuries?

Is there an English equivalent of the macaronic “In dulci jubilo”? Or better yet, is there an entirely Latin version of this Christmas carol?

The German, “In dulci jubilo” has “eia” in the very place where, if this Christmas carol had been continued entirely in Latin, ‘io io’ would have been used:

At the end of the verses beginning with “O patris caritas” and “Ubi sund gaudia” the same German phrase, “Eia, warn wir da” [“O, if only we were there”] is repeated twice each time. This is the expression of a strong feeling, which in context of a Christmas text must mean ‘joy.’

The DWB gives ‘eia’ as an extended form of ‘ei.’ In Old High and Middle High German this diphthong appears as an ‘i’ with a long sound the equivalent to the beginning of ‘io.’
This ‘ei’ can express a strong feeling of ‘joy, astonishment or to talk lovingly or even to make love.’ There is also documented the use of the repetitive “eiei!” in a love making situation: “eiei machen” [“Let’s make some ‘ei ei’ {or is it really ‘io io’?}”]

Here are some quotes with ‘Eia’ from old German Christmas carols:

Vom Himmel hoch, o Englein, kommt!
Eia, Eia, susani, susani, susani
(1625) [‚susani’ = a lullaby sound]

Den geboren hat ein’ Magd,
hat der Welt das Leben bracht
und den bösen Feind verjagt
und ihm genommen all sein’ Macht.
Eia, su, su, su
[‘su’ is simply a corruption of ‚susani’]
Schlaf’, mein liebes Kindelein! [Text: 1608; Melody 1588]

Der Spiegel der Dreifaltigkeit,
erleucht’ der Welt Finsterkeit!
Eia, liebe Christenheit,
mit Lob and G’sang sei bereit,
mit Fröhlichkeit und Innigkeit
dem Kindelein in Ewigkeit!
Eia, Susaminne
, [this is a full form of ‚susani’ = translate “lully, lulla, lullay,lullaby’]
Jesus liegt darinne. [From the 16th century]

Des bin ich froh, bin ich froh,
froh, froh, froh, o, o, o!
Benedicamus Domino!
[This refrain, very likely modified by Erk-Böhme (19th century) is attributed to the17th century. It is fairly obvious what is behind the repeated ‘froh’s’ and ‘o’s’]

Als ich bei meinen Schafen wacht’,
ein Engel mir die Botschaft bracht’.
Des bin ich froh,
Des bin ich froh,
froh, froh, froh
, [here ‚froh’ is used almost more as an interjection like ‘io’]
froh, froh, froh!
Benedicamus Domino!
Benedicamus Domino!

Zu Bethlehem geboren
ist uns ein Kindelein,
hab ich auserkoren,
sein eigen will ich sein.
Eia! Eia! Sein eigen will ich sein
. [Cologne, 1638]

…Eia, eia!
Himmlisch Leben
Wird er geben
Mir dort oben:
Ewig soll mein Herz ihn loben
. [Philipp Nicolai, 1599)

The OED lists ‚eya’ as obsolete and rare. Its etymology points to medieval Latin: ‘eya’ [Latin ‘eia’ with a long ‘e’] meaning ‘indeed, surely’ only example given: “Eya, my lorde, god, my holy louer” c. 1430)

I found a medieval English Christmas carol that could be read as ‘surely’ or ‘indeed’ as well as an interjection of joy:

Make we joy in this fest
In quo Christus natus est;
Eya.

And from some extreme macaronic English medieval carol, how about this ?

Novo profusi gaudio,
benedicamus Domino.
…Enixa est puerpera,
que Saint Esprit en engrossa;
blessed be time that she said ya,
Gabriele nuncio.

I am fairly certain that Mary is not simply saying ‘yes’ or ‘indeed, surely’; this is a strong emotional expression of pure joy.

The Oxford Latin Dictionary gives ‘io’ as a strong interjection – an exclamation uttered under the stress of strong emotion: Example: “io Saturnalia!” [Is this getting quite close to “Merry/Happy Christmas”? – but, in any case, ‘io’ must be looked upon as an interjection and not an adjective.]

[There are Latin and Greek forms that bear a close sound resemblance to the ‘eia’ or ‘io’ under discussion above, but they are of another category of emotion expression that relates to anguish or pain: Latin ‘ei’, ‘eheu’ – Greek ‘ai’; and Latin ‘heia’ or ‘eia’ (almost the same in Greek) that express deprecation, concession, astonishment and urgency. These do not fit into the joyful categories of the ‘io’ and ‘eia’ indicated in the numerous examples above.

Dick Wursten wrote (November 27, 2002):
I'm not sure whether I agree entirely with Thomas, when he writes:
< The German, “In dulci jubilo” has “eia” in the very place where, if this Christmas carol had been continued entirely in Latin, ‘io io’ would have been used: [...] “Eia, warn wir da” [“O, if only we were there”] is repeated twice each time. This is the expression of a strong feeling, which in context of a Christmas text must mean ‘joy.’ >
No, not joy, but yearning.'Ach' would be the proper translation in Dutch/Deutsch In the cradlesongs it is a more a 'sound' to put the baby at ease... of course IMVHO

For the rest very informative mail... AFAIK 'indulci jubilo' always has been 'macaronic' (learned a new word)

 

Continue on Part 2

Cantata BWV 140: Details & Complete Recordings | Recordings of Individual Movements | Discussions: Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5 | Part 6 | Part 7

Recordings & Discussions of Cantatas: Cantatas BWV 1-50 | Cantatas BWV 51-100 | Cantatas BWV 101-150 | Cantatas BWV 151-200 | Cantatas BWV 201-224 | Cantatas BWV Anh | Order of Discussion

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