Musical Context of Bach Cantatas
Motets & Chorales for 16th Sunday after Trinity
Reading: Epistle: Ephesians 3: 13-21; Gospel: Luke 7: 11-17
Dates in the lifetime of J.S. Bach, including works composed for the event
Motets and Chorales for the 16th Sunday after Trinity (Trinity 16)
Douglas Cowling wrote (March 17, 2012):
THE MUSICAL CONTEXT OF BACH'S CANTATAS:
MOTETS AND CHORALES FOR THE SIXTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY
* BACH'S HYMN BOOK:
Jürgen Grimm, "Das neu [?] Leipziger Gesangbuch des Gottfried Vopelius
Berlin: Merseburger, 1969.
ML 3168 G75
* BACH'S MOTET COLLECTION:
Otto Riemer, "Erhard Bodenschatz und sein Florilegium Portense"
ML 410 B67R4
Partial Index of Motets in ³Florilegium Portense² with links to online
scores and biographies:
Dissertation on Bodenschatz Collection (downloadable):
The text of the motet which is appears in both Lenten and Funeral sources shows a strong thematic link with the cantatas for this Sunday. The chorale ³Mitten Wir² is a German paraphrase of the Latin.
1) MOTETS for Introit, Before Sermon at mass and vespers for Choir II, and During Communion:
³Media Vita² (8 voices) Jakob Handl (Gallus)
Text: Liturgical responsorary
In the midst of life we are in death
of whom may we seek for succour, but of thee, O Lord,
who for our sins art justly displeased?
O Lord God most holy, O Lord most mighty,
O holy and most merciful Saviour,
deliver us not into the bitter pains of eternal death.
Trinity 16 Chorales and References
William Hoffman wrote (March 5, 2012):
The 16th Sunday after Trinity was a particularly fruitful time for Bach in Leipzig. It enabled him to craft service cantatas that embraced a wide array of popular Lutheran chorales -- both traditional and contemporary -- on the subject of "Death and Dying," creatively utilized in musical forms that feature poetic free-verse and rhymed commentary with accessible melodies in a quartet of cantatas as musical sermon emphasizing key Christian teachings.
As John Eliot Gardiner, observed in his Bach 2000 Cantata Pilgrimage:
"The four cantatas for Trinity 16 draw their inspiration from the Gospel story of the raising of the widow of Nain's son. All four - BWV 161, 27, 8 and 95 - articulate the Lutheran yearning for death, and all but one feature the `Leichen-Glocken', the tolling of funerary bells" [two recorders in BWV 161/1 chorale chorus, and plucked strings in 95/5 tenor aria "Ach schlage doch" and 8/1 chorale chorus].
"Yet for all their unity of theme, there is immense diversity of texture, structure and mood, and together they make a satisfying and deeply moving quartet - music that is both healing and uplifting"
Besides the funeral bells providing an air of consolation to the theme of death and dying, Gardiner notes the lilting dance qualities found in three of the four cantatas for Trinity 16: "With two of its movements in triple time (Nos.3 and 5), BWV 161 seems to be setting a pattern for Bach's later cantatas dealing with the call of death - or is this quite by chance? Could this be a deliberate device to lull and soothe the grieving heart? Three of the four main movements in BWV 95 are in triple metre. So too is the magical opening chorus of BWV 27 Wer weiß, wie nahe mir mein Ende, an elegiac lament."
In all four cantatas, "the subject is death as such, not only its unforsee-ability but its conquest by the resurrection, and hence the longing for a better world beyond the grave," says Walter Blankenburg (Martin Cooper translation) in the Karl Richter "Bach Cantatas Vol. 4 - Sundays after Trinity I" (Deutsche Grammophon Archiv CD set; BCW Cantata 27 Recordings). "It is not the tragic aspect of the gospel story, the death of a widow's only son, that is emphasized, but his raising from the dead by Jesus, as a sign of his divine omnipotence. It is therefore a central article of the Christian faith rather than the chief feature of the human story that is the subject of each of these cantatas."
The 16th Sunday after Trinity offered Bach a rare, serendipitous situation in his choice of subject matter. Bach's Leipzig hymnbook, <Das Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> (NLGB) of Gottfried Vopelius, allowed the choice of chorales from the latter <omnes tempore> section under major headings, specifically the category "Death and Dying," followed by "The 10 Commandments" and "Christian Life and Hope" for the succeeding two Sundays. Previously, the NLGB had focused on Trinity Time well-known hymns involving liturgy, the Lutheran Catechism, and popular Psalms with important Christian themes for the second half of the church year dealing with the teachings of the Christian Church instead of the major events in the life of Jesus Christ. The one previous exception was Trinity 12 with chorales emphasizing "Cross, Persecution, and Tribulation," another Bach favorite category.
Thematic chorales played a major role as Bach shaped his three Leipzig cycles of "well-regulated church music." This is most evident in his setting of six chorales with the themes of "Death and Dying" (Christus, der ist meins Leben," "Valet will ich dir geben," "Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist," "Liebster Gott, wann werd ich sterben," "Wer wiss, wie nah mir mein Ende?," "Welt, ade! Ich bin deine müde") two in the related "Cross, Persecution and Tribulation" ("Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein," "Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten"), and Passion chorales like "O sacred head now wounded."
Besides a choice of chorales of "Death and Dying," the NLGB for Trinity 16 in Leipzig specifically lists two chorales to be sung at service: "Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein" (When we are in utmost need), as No. 277, "Cross, Persecution and Tribulation," and Martin Luther's three-stanza teaching hymn, "Mitten wir im Leben sind" (We are in the middle of life), found with the four-part setting of J. H. Schein in the NLGB, No. 344, "Death and Dying" but not set by Bach.
"Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein" has a seven-stzana text of Paul Eber (1564), based on Jehoshaphat's prayer in 2 Chronicles 20, set to the Louis Bourgeois 1543 melody. Bach set the Bourgeois melody in the plain chorales, BWV 431 in F Major and BWV 432 in G Major, as well as in the organ chorale preludes of the Weimar <Orgelbüchlein> (Little Organ Book) collection, BWV 641 in F Major, under the heading "Christian Life and conduct." It is possible that the two plain chorales and the organ chorale prelude were performed during Leipzig services where the four Cantatas BWV 161, 95, 8, and 27 were performed.
The organ chorale BWV 641 exists in an expanded version, BWV 668(a), "Great 18 Leipzig Chorales," where it has the text dictum of Bach's so-called death-bed chorale, "Vor deinen Thron tret' ich hiermit" (Before thy throne I now appear).
Trinity 16 Biblical References
The gospel and Bach's treatment through chorales and poetic text in the cantata as a musical sermon shows that the 16th Sunday after Trinity is part of the third Trinity Time mini-cycle of New Testament teachings on the "Works of Faith and Love," that is, the meaning of being a Christian, says Paul Zeller Strodach, <The Church Year> (United Lutheran Publication House, Philadelphia PA, 1924: 216). During this time from the 12th to the 18th Sunday after Trinity, the lectionary presents affirmative teachings of paraband miracles, and the Lutheran hymnbook prescribes thematic <omnes tempore> timely hymns on Sundays that occur primarily between mid August and late September.
The Middle Trinity Time Gospel lessons emphasize "Thematic Patterns of Paired Parables or Teachings & Miracles," according to Douglas Cowling in the Bach Cantata Website (BCW). The current pairs are:
* Trinity 15: Matthew 6: 23-34 Teaching: Avoid worldly cares
if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore
the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness!
* Trinity 16: Luke 7: 11-17 Miracle of the raising of the son of the widow
of Nain, And he came and touched the bier: and they that bare him stood still. And he
said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise!
Bach's Trinity 16 Calendar
For the record Bach was particularly active on this 16th Sunday after Trinity in Leipzig. Here are the cantatas Bach probably presented and their chorales:
Sweet Death & Passion Chorale
In Weimar, Cantata BWV 161, "Komm, du süße Todesstunde" (Come thou, sweet hour of death) is believed to have received its first performance on Sept. 27, 1716. It probably was composed for Trinity 16 the year prior (Oct. 6, 1715) but set aside as that date coincided with a three-month period of state mourning in Weimar, that began on August 1, for Prince Johann Ernst (excluding Trinity 8 to 20).
Cantata BWV 161 uses throughout the Hans Leo Hassler Passion chorale melody, "Herzlich tut mich verlangen/Befiehl du deine Wege" (Heartily do I long/Commend you your ways, NLGB No. 329, Death & Dying): in the opening alto slumber song in basso continuo cantus firmus with obbligato organ, in the closing four-part chorale (Movement No. 6) with recorders obbligato, set to the Christoph Knoll 1605 associated text, "Der Lieb zwar in der Erden" (The body indeed in the earth), Stanza 4, and "is the source of the themes in the other movements (Cantata 161 Recordings, Suzuki Liner Notes). Bach used this chorale, known in English and "On sacred head now wounded," in his music more often than any other.
Cantata BWV 161 is one of Bach's earliest uses of the Passion Chorale, that also was sung at the Prince's memorial service, April 2, 1716, in Bach's lost funeral cantata "Was ist, das wir Leben nennen?" (What is it that we call life?; text only survives), Bach Compendium BC B-19. It probably also was set to a libretto by Weimar Court poet Salomo Franck, suggesting a close collaboration between him and Bach that also produced two years of service cantatas, 1715-16, totaling 13 presented monthly and published in the 1715 annual cycle text, <Evangelisches Andachts-Opfer> (Evangelical Devotional Offerings).
Interestingly, Cantata BWV 161 is the only one of some 20 Bach service cantatas composed in Weimar that was not used for the same allowable Sunday in Leipzig. Instead, it apparently was reperformed for the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary (<Mariae Reinigung>, Candelmas), on Feb. 2, c.1735, because of its "appropriate textual content" (Dürr <Cantatas of JSB>: 666). As many as 16 cantatas have been associated with Bach performances for Purification with various appropriate textual allusions. Eight months hence, the BCW weekly discussion, beginning October 28, will consider five Bach cantatas for Purification.
The original score and part set are lost, perhaps through Friedemann, but a copy of the score and parts set, alternate designation for Purification, survive from an unknown copyist at the Berlin Singakademie at the end of then 18th Century. The provenance of the music is unknown. These materials reveal two versions, the Weimar with typical recorders and instrumental canto, and the Leipzig substituting flutes and violins and the canto sung.
Death, Dying & Simeon's Canticle
On September 12, 1723 in his first cycle, Bach instead composed Cantata BWV 95, Christus, der ist meins Leben" (Christ, you are my life)," a second hybrid chorale cantata that has the distinction of citing more chorales than any other cantata - four.
1. The opening chorale chorus is set to the Melchior Vulpius' prayer for the dying with the 1609 melody "Christus, der ist mein Leben," originally set to an anonymous eight-stanza poem, proclaiming the opening stanza. It is found in the NLGB No. 369, "Death and Dying." Francis Browne's BCW translation of the entire eight-verse "Christus, der ist meins Leben" is found in: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale038-Eng3.htm.
Bach selectively used the Vulpius melody elsewhere: as a variant of chorale chorus, Cantata BWV 95/1, in the plain chorale, BWV 282 (also in G Major but in triple time), and as an early (c.1700) Neumeister organ chorale prelude in F Major, BWV 1112, and its similar four-part plain chorale setting, BWV 281 (also in F Major in common time).
The melody is listed in the Weimar <Orgelbüchlein> (Little Organ Book) chorale preludes as No. 134 under "Death and Dying" but not set. It is possible that the two plain chorale settings, BWV 281 and 282, originated in Weimar since the Salomo Franck text of the Prince Johann Ernst funeral cantata, "Was ist, das wir Leben nennen?" (What is it that we call life?), BC B-19, calls for settings of Stanzas 1 and 3. Plain chorale BWV 281 and its companion Neumeister organ chorale prelude, BWV 1112, are found in the Hänssler complete Bach Edition chorale settings, Vol. 85, under "Death, Dying and Eternity."
The initial chorale chorus in Cantata 95 is followed by an interpolated tenor arioso-recitative, "Mit Freuden, ja mit Herzelust" (With joy, yea with heart's desire), and the movement concludes with another chorale chorus singing Martin Luther's "Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin" (With peace and joy I now depart) with the solo horn imitating the melody.
The final line of the first stanza of "Christus, der ist mein Leben" proclaims: "Mit Fried fahr ich dahin" (with joy I depart). The words are based on the <Nunc dimmitis>, Simeon's Canticle, "Lord, let your servant depart in peace" (Luke 2:29-32), best known for the Feast of the Purification in Luther's paraphrase, "Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin," as a four-verse alliterative prayer of thanksgiving and reconciliation with death. It is found in the NLGB 113, under "Purification."
No. 3. The soprano canto trio aria sings the opening stanza of Valerius Herberger's 1613 five-stanza text, "Valet will ich dir geben" (Farewell I shall bid to you), to the Melchior Teschner melody, with oboe obbligato interlude. Bach also set this plea to the saviour of the soul in the <St. John Passion>, BWV 245, with Stanza 3, "In meines Herzen Grunde" (In the depths of my heart), following Pilate's condemnation of Jesus. Bach sets the melody as a four-part chorale, BWV 415 in D Major, as early miscellaneous organ chorales, Fantasia Super with pedal obbligato, BWV 735(a) in B-Flat Major, and BWV 736, pedal chorale in 24/16 time and D Major. The chorale also is listed in the <Orgelbüchlein> (Little Organ Book) chorale preludes as No. 132 under "Death and Dying" but not set. NLGB No. 345, Death and Dying. Today the popular hymn is known in English as "All glory, laud and honor," and is found in the current American Lutheran hymnal, <Evangelical Lutheran Worship> (Minneapolis MN: Augsburg Fortress Press, 2006) as No. 344, for Holy Week.
7. Closing plain chorale, Nikolaus Herman's 1650 "Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist" (When my little hour is at hand), Stanza 4, "Weil du vom Tod erstanden bist" (While from death you stand), with solo violin obbligato. NLGB No. 330 <omnes tempore>, "Death and Dying" listed as pulpit/communion hymns for Trinity 16 and 17.
Bach uses of "Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist" are: for Easter Tuesday, no <Orgelbüchlein> listing; Cantata BWV 31/9(S.5) Easter Sunday; BWV 95/7 (S.4), Trinity 16); BWV 428, 429 (Death & Dying), 430=?247/41, Cantata BWV 15/11 > Anh III 157=JLB21/11(S.4) Easter Sunday.
During this time in Leipzig, Bach began utilizing texts of Picander and inserting interpolated chorale texts. It quite possible that the hybrid libretto of Cantata 95was a collaboration of Bach, his Pastor Christian Weiss Sr., and possible Picander. Francis Browne's translation of the text of Cantata BWV 95 is found at: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV95-Eng3.htm
On Sept. 24, 1724 the chorale cantata Cycle 2 involves a standard paraphrased Chorale Cantata BWV 8, of the contemporary hymn, "Liebster Gott, wann werd ich sterben" (Loving God, when will I die?). It is based on Caspar Neumann's 1690 text in five stanzas, to the four-part, by-1695 funeral setting of Leipzig St. Nicholas organist Daniel Vetter. Cantata 8 has an opening chorale fantasia dancing pastoral 12/8 chorus and closes with a plain four-part setting of the final stanza, "Herrscher über Tod und Leben" (Lord, over death and life, make once for all my good ending), with a borrowing from Vetter's "Musicalischer Kirch- und Haus-Ergötzlichkeit, Anderer Theil" (Leipzig 1713), No. 91, in Bach's radical alteration. Bach also used the hymn in the Schemeli Sacred Songbook (1736), Melody 61 in E-Flat Major ("Death Songs"), BWV 483. Another key sacred song in the collection is "Komm, süßer Tod" (Come, sweetest death), in C Minor, BWV 478, based on an anonymous text to an original Bach melody, and best known in Leopold Stokowski's symphonic transcription.
Cantata BWV 8 may have been repeated in the abbreviated Cycle 2a Trinity Time, on Sept. 16, 1725, opening with the plain setting of the first stanza. It was repeated in Leipzig between 1736-40 and again c.1746-47 in a second version transposed from E to D Major. It is possible that Bach may have performed the two appropriate Schemelli sacred songs during a service where Cantata 8 was reperformed. There is no record that St. Thomas prefect Christoph Friedrich Penzel copied the work and performed it.
The chorale text adapter/paraphraser for Cantata 8 could be from the so-called first cantata group unknown author who began in the Chorale Cantata Cycle (No. 2) with Cantata BWV 78, "Jesu, der du meine Seele," for Trinity 14, two weeks previously, on September 10, and also contributed Cantatas 96, 5, 115, 62, 124, and 1, for Trinity 18, 19, 22, and 24 as well as Advent Sunday 1, Epiphany Sunday 1, and Annunciation/Palm Sunday, March 25, 1725, Bach last chorale Cantata composed for Cycle 2, according to Artur Hirsch (dissertation), BACH July 1973. Francis Browne's BCW Interlinear text translation of Cantata 8 is found at: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV8-Eng3.htm.
Funeral Hymn Set to Popular Melody
On Oct. 6, 1726 in Cantata Cycle 3, Bach presented his chorus Cantata BWV 27, "Wer wiss, wie nah mir mein Ende?" (Who knows how near is my end?), set to a hybrid libretto. It opens with a chorale chorus setting of the first verse of a 1695 12-stanza contemporary funeral hymn of Princess Ämilie Juliane von Schwarzburg-Rudolstdadt 1695, using the associated, popular Georg Neumark 1640 melody, "Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten" (We only the loving God lets govern), NLGB No. 303, "Cross, Persecution and Tribuation."
Bach earlier used the same setting as a plain chorale to close Cantata BWV 166, "Wo gehest du hin?" (Where goeth thou hither?) for Cantate Sunday (Easter 4), on May 7, 1724 near the end of the first Leipzig cantata cycle. This time in Chorale Cantata 8, he uses another recitative interpolation (trope) with soprano, alto, and tenor commentary in between the lines of the chorale chorus, written by an anonymous librettist, possible Picander.
Later, Bach used the Princess Ämilie Juliane hymn final Stanza 12, "Ich leb indess in dir vergnüget" (I live meanwhile in Thee contented), set to the Neumark melody, as a plain chorale closing Cantata BWV 84, "Ich bin vergnügt mit meinem Glücke" (I am happy in good fortune) for Septuagesima Sunday, Feb. 9, 1727, to a Picander published text.
The Neumark melody, "Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten" (Who only the loving God lets govern) was one of Bach's favorites and remains a popular hymn today. Bach's settings include the Neumark original 1640 text in two cantatas for Trinity Sunday 5, Chorale Cantata BWV 93, same title, for Cycle 2 in 1724, and Cantata 88, "Siehe, ich will viel Fischer aussenden" (Behold I will many fishers send out) in Cycle 3 in 1726.
Bach also sets the Neumark hymn in Cantatas BWV 21, 179, and 97, as well as the melody in the in the plain chorale, BWV 434 in A Minor/Major (Hänssler complete Bach Edition chorale settings, Vol. 85, under "Trust in God)"; the Weimar <Orgelbüchlein>, organ chorale prelude, BWV 642, under the <omnes tempore> listing "Christian Life and Conduct"; as a 1746 Schübler organ chorale trio prelude, BWV 647, a miscellaneous organ chorales, BWV 690 and 691(a) (<WFB Clavierbüchlein>) found in the "Kirnberger Collection."
The <Orgelbüchlein> BWV 642 setting of the Neumark melody is one of two (the other, "Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein," BWV 641) out of a total of five <omnes tempore> chorales Bach set of a projected 164, with 39 of these set for the <de tempore> time. Bach utilized very early (c.1700) chorales and some later ones to provide organ settings to accompany <omnes tempore> cantatas during the church year services.
The Neumark hymn is No. 303 in Bach's Leipzig hymnbook, the <NLGB>, under the <omnes tempore> heading, "Cross, Persecution, and Tribulation." It was assigned to Trinity 5 in the Leipzig, Dresden, and Weißenfels hymnals in Bach's time (Stiller, <JSB & Liturgical Life in Leipzig>: 242). Today it is known as "If you but trust in God to guide you," No. 769 under "Trust and Guidance" in the <Evangelical Lutheran Worship> (<Ibid.>).
Cantata BWV 27 closes with a five-voice motet setting of Johann Georg Albinus' 1649 "Welt, ade! Ich bin deine müde" (World farewell, I am tired of you), Johann Rosenmuller melody and harmonization, that Bach took directly from the "Death and Dying" section of the <NLGB> (No. 372), with Bach's added tutti, colle-parte instrumentation.
Other Trinity 16 Works
A. On Sept. 28, 1727, there was no performance during the mourning period of Sept. 7, 1727, to Jan. 8, 1728, for deceased Saxon Queen Christiane Eberhardine.
B. On Sept. 12, 1728, in the published Picander so-called Cycle 4, the Cantata text P-59, "Schließet euch, Ihr müden Augen (Close you, your tired eyes); no chorale listed.
C. On Oct. 10, 1734 (Trinity 16), Chorale Cantata 8 may have been reperformed as part of a possible repeat of the chorale cantata cycle with oratorios for the major feast days, ending at Trinity Time 1735, when Bach introduced the first of two annual cycles of Gottfried Heinrich Stözel's sacred cantatas.
D. On Sept. 18, 1735, Bach performed Stözel's two-part cantata "Mein Jesu, deine Vater-Hand"; as part of the cycle "Saitenspiele des Hertzens" (Music Playing of the Heart), text by Benjamin Schmolck, with two more contemporary chorale settings not in the <NLGB>:
No. 4, plain chorale, "Die Thronen-Freude dieser Welt" (This world is the throne of joy) Stanza 2, Johann Jacob Schültz 1673 "Was mich auf dieser Welt betrübt" (What the world concerns for me).
No. 8, plain chorale, "Gottes Kinder säen zwar traurig und mit Thränen (God's children sow most mournfully with tears), from Paul Garhardt's 1653 "Schwingt dich auf zu deinem Gott" (Swing thee up to thy God).
E. About Sept. 16, 1736; Bach may have performed Stözel's two-part cantata "So bist du doch. Gott, allein meines Herzens Trist und mein Teil," from the cantata cycle "Das Namenbuch Christi," (Book of Names of Christ), Schmolck text, No. 58. No chorales are listed in the sources.
Douglas Cowling wrote (March 5, 2012):
Intro. to BWV 161: Trinity 16 "Welt Ade"
William Hoffman wrote:
< Cantata BWV 27 closes with a five-voice motet setting of Johann Georg Albinus' 1649 "Welt, ade! Ich bin deine müde" (World farewell, I am tired of you), Johann Rosenmuller melody and harmonization, that Bach took directly from the "Death and Dying" section of the <NLGB> (No. 372), with Bach's added tutti, colle-parte instrumentation. >
This lovely little motet became a popular Anglic"anthem" attributed to Bach when it was included in the "Novello Anthem Book" with a text beginning "Holy Ghost Dispel Our Sadness." Odd that it would become one of the works most performed by Anglican choirs all over the English-speaking world.
Rosenmuller is an rather dark character. He was organist of the Nicholai Church in Leipzig and supposedly destined to become Bach's predecessor as Cantor. However, he was imprisoned in 1655 allegedly for abuse of students. He escaped from prison and fled to Venice where he found a position teaching at the Pieta, the girls' orphanage for which Vivaldi wrote some of his finest music. The two positions could suggest the sinister pattern of a child predator.
William Hoffman wrote (March 5, 2012):
[To Douglas Cowling] Check out this Amazon website that has four recordings of Rosenmuller's music: Amazon.com
Kim Patrick Clow wrote (March 5, 2012):
William Hoffman wrote:
< Check out this Amazon website that has four recordings of Rosenmuller's music: Amazon.com >
I was fortunate enough to help prepare several editions used at a mini-Rosenmuller festival here in New York in Feb.: http://www.musiqueancienne.org/index.php?module=News&func=display&sid=1249
Great great music. Highly recommended.
Douglas Cowling wrote (March 5, 2012):
Kim Patrick Clow wrote:
< I was fortunate enough to help prepare several editions used at a mini-Rosenmuller festival here in New York in Feb. >
What's the scholarly scoop on his biography?
Musical Context of Bach Cantatas: Table of Motets & Chorales for Events in the Lutheran Church Year