William Hoffman wrote (May 18, 2014):
The First Sunday After Trinity Sunday, occurring before the mid-summer equinox in June, marked the beginning of the Trinity time second half-year of church services, the beginning of Bach’s first two cantata cycles, and the beginning of the Thomas School scholastic term as well as Bach position as Cantor. Thus, it was most fitting for Bach to establish a strong framework for his well-regulated church music with the use of appropriate and engaging chorales and lectionary references for his musical sermons.
Consequently, Bach produced music of great depth and breadth:
*His initial cantatas for the first seven Sundays After Trinity show great ambition, being in two parts or dual performances for full ensemble, with proclaiming choruses, instrumental introductions, and instructive and elaborate chorale settings with more familiar melodies found throughout Trinity time.
*The prescribed biblical readings and hymn music are revealed throughout the texts of the first or alpha cyclic cantatas with preparatory organ chorale preludes and free-standing, harmonized, four-part chorales.
Bach brought to his music a profound understanding and exercise of Lutheran theology, particularly in his sacred cantatas composed as musical sermons. For a overview of Bach’s pursuit, see the BCW article, “Theology,” http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Articles/Theology%5BHoffman%5D.htm.
The overall template for understanding the liturgical usage of Bach's chorales is found in the Lutheran hymn books, with their established order of the chorales listed in church year order, still utilized in today's hymnbooks. This ordering is found in collections containing Bach earliest organ chorale works, such as the so-called pre-Weimar Neumeister and Weimar Orgelbüchlein (Little Organ Book) Collections, as well as the Catechism chorales at the beginning of the omnes tempore half of the church year. The other early collections, including doubtful or questionable organ chorale preludes, are not catalogued by church year service but cover a wide range of activities, including instructional pieces.
Scholars believe that the Orgelbüchlein collection is the first systematic example of Bach's “well-regulated church music to the glory of God,” the goal that he set for himself in 1708 upon resigning his position as organist in Mühlhausen. Peter Williams (Organ Music of JSB: 337) says that the "Great 18 Leipzig" preludes collection is a compliment to the earlier Orgelbüchlein (Ob), citing "their difference from Ob settings makes them complimentary to it," where the Ob chorale preludes emphasized the de tempore first half of the church year and the “Great 18” the omnes tempore. The Clavierübung III organ chorale liturgical collection (1739) also focuses on the omnes tempore Mass& Catechism Chorales, BWV 669-689, as well as the Schmelli Gesangbuch sacred songs collection (1736) of pietistic themes.
The Lutheran liturgical year, as found in both the Neumeister and Orgelbüchlein chorale collections has two sections:
1. de tempore (Advent to Trinity, the life of Christ), the first half of the church year;
2. omnes tempore (anytime) Lutheran themes, usually during Epiphany Time (Jesus Hymns) and the Trinity Time second half-year.
The de tempore include the seasons or festivals of Advent, Christmas, New Year, Purification, Passiontide, Easter, Ascension, Pentecost, Trinity, John the Baptist, Visitation, Michael, Simon & Jude, and Reformation.
When Bach selected the specific chorale for the second cycle, he generally chose those that were appropriate for the particular service. During the omnes tempore Trinity Time, the chosen chorale rarely addressed the lectionary Gospel or Epistle readings. Instead the hymn theme related to the teachings of the particular day’s reading.
The period of Sundays after Trinity has never seen the scholarly interest that the Christmas and Easter narratives have received and there is a certain assumption that the Gospel readings do not have the same dramatic significance. It is worth looking at several literary patterns which Bach would have known intimately. In general, there are three genres in the Trinity season: Parables - short moralized allegories within the larger narratives of events in the life of Christ; Miracles - short self-contained narratives of miraculous healings; and Teachings excerpts from longer hortatory discourses by Christ. There is also a series of groupings which would have been part of the critical apparatus of both theologians and musicians such as Bach who had such a finely-tuned ear for the literary shape of scriptural passages.
Although there are no formal divisions in the official books, we see some important groupings which may have influenced Bach¹s cantata composition. A brief outline of the half season: 1) Sundays after Trinity 1-4 is a four week sequence of parables; 2) Trinity 5-8 has a series of paired miracles and teachings; 3) Trinity 9-19 generally alternates a parable with a teaching or miracle. Whether these literary patterns influenced Bach deserves investigation in both librettos and scores.
The omne tempore common time of Epiphany and Trinity, focusing on the teachings of the Christian Church, emphasizes both general Christian themes, such as “Christian Life and Conduct” and “Trusting in God, Cross and Consolation,” as well as New Testament teachings as shown in Doug Cowling’s BCW THEMATIC PATTERNS IN BACH¹S GOSPELS: parables, miracles and other teachings:
Thematic Patterns in Bach's Gospels
Douglas Cowling wrote (May 3, 2011): THEMATIC PATTERNS IN BACH¹S GOSPELS. The season of Sundays after Trinity has never seen the scholarly interest that the Christmas and Eastern narratives have received and there is a certain assumption that the Gospel readings do not have the same dramatic significance.
It is worth looking at several literary patterns which Bach would have known intimately. In general, there are three genres in the Trinity season: Parables - short moralized allegories within the larger narratives of events in the life of Christ; Miracles - short self-contained narratives of miraculous healings. Teachings excerpts from longer hortatory discourses by Christ.
There is also a series of groupings which would have been part of the critical apparatus of both theologians and musicians such as Bach who had such a finely-tuned ear for the literary shape of scriptural passages.
Although there are no formal divisions in the official books, we see some important groupings which may have influenced Bach¹s cantata composition. A brief outline of the first half of the season: 1) Trinity 1-4 is a four week sequence of parables; 2) Trinity 5-8 has a series of paired miracles and teachings; 3) Trinity 9-19 generally alternates a parable with a teaching or miracle. Whether these literary patterns influenced Bach deserves investigation in both librettos and scores.
PART ONE: Four Parables
* Trinity 1: Luke 16: 19-31- Parable of Dives and Lazarus. There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and sumptuously every day: And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores,
* Trinity 2: Luke 14: 16-24 - Parable of the great supper. A certain man made a great supper, and bade many: And sent his servant at supper time to say to them that were bidden, Come; for all things are now ready.
* Trinity 3: Luke 15: 1-10 - Parable of the lost sheep. What man of you, having an hundred sheep, if he lose one of them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and go after that which is lost, until he find it?
* Trinity 4: Luke 6: 36-42 - Parable: Blind leading the Blind. And he spake a parable unto them, Can the blind lead the blind? shall they not both fall into the ditch?
PART TWO: Paired Miracles & Teachings
* Trinity 5: Luke 5: 1-11 Miracle: draught of fishes. And he entered into one of the ships, which was Simon's, and prayed him that would thrust out a little from the land. And he sat down, and taught the people out of the ship.
* Trinity 6: Matthew 5: 20-26 Teaching: Agree with your adversary. Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee; Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift.
* Trinity 7: Mark 8: 1-9 Miracle of feeding of the four thousand. And he commanded the people to sit down on the ground: and he took the seven loaves, and gave thanks, and brake, and gave to his disciples to set before them; and they did set them before the people;
* Trinity 8: Matthew 7: 15-23 Teaching: Beware of false prophets. Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?
PART THREE: Paired Parable. Teachings & Miracles
Trinity 9: Luke 16: 1-9 - Parable of the unjust steward. There was a certain rich man, which had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he had wasted his goods.
Trinity 10 Luke 19: 41-48 Teaching: Jesus weeps over Jerusalem. And when he was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over it,
Trinity 11: Luke 18: 9-14 - Parable of the Pharisee and the Publican. Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican.
Trinity 12: Mark 7: 31-37 Miracle of Deaf Man. And they bring unto him one that was deaf, and had an impediment in his speech; and they beseech him to put his hand upon him.
* Trinity 13: Luke 10: 23-37 - Parable of the good Samaritan. A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, which stripped him of his raiment, and wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead.
* Trinity 14: Luke 17: 11-19 - Miracle of healing of the lepers. And as he entered into a certain village, there met him ten men that were lepers, which stood afar off:
* Trinity 15: Matthew 6: 23-34 - Teaching: Avoid worldly cares. If thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness!
* Trinity 16: Luke 7: 11-17 - Miracle of the raising of the son of the widow of Nain. And he came and touched the bier: and they that bare him stood still. And he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise.
* Trinity 17: Luke 14: 1-11 - Miracle of the dropsical man & Parable of wedding. And he took him, and healed him, and let him go; When thou art bidden of any man to a wedding, sit not down in the highest room;
* Trinity 18: Matthew 22: 34-46 - Teaching: The great commandment. Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.
* Trinity 19: Matthew 9: 1-8 Miracle of palsied man. And, behold, they brought to him a man sick of the palsy, lying on a bed: and Jesus seeing their faith said unto the sick of the palsy; Son, be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven thee.
“After Pentecost and Trinity, the second half of the church year is taken up entirely with the series of Sundays in (or after) Trinity, which may, exceptionally, extend to as many as twenty-seven and which can be considered to represent the era of the church that precedes it,” says Eric Chafe in Analyzing Bach Cantatas.1 Since it does not follow a chronological sequence ordered according to the principal events in Jesus’ life, the Trinity season was a whole takes up a wide range of themes, many of which center on Christian life, on the believer’s fear of judgment, on the antithesis of present life and eternity, and on faith and the necessity of undergoing tribulation in the world in preparation for the second coming and the Last Judgment. The character of the season, therefore, centers on questions of doctrine and faith in a varied mix, a significant number of the weekly gospel readings featuring parables and miracles stories that invite metaphoric interpretations of the world as a “hospital” for the spiritually sick, a “desert” in which the spiritually hungry are in need of manna, a testing ground for love and mercy towards one’s neighbor, and the like. In short, the Trinity season seems to explore the human condition, its weakness, wavering, sinfulness, and mortality, emphasizing these qualities so as to demonstrate the need for both fear of God’s judgment and trust in His mercy.”
“Since the Trinity season centers on the concerns of Christian life, in the ordering of the Lutheran chorale collections according to the liturgical year, the catechism chorale collections, which represent the basic expression of the core doctrines of the faith, were often associated with the early weeks of the Trinity season.”
The omnes tempore themes in the Orgelbüchlein Bach listed are Catechism (Commandments, Creed, Lord's Prayer, Baptism, Confession+Penitence & Justification, and Communion [Lord's Supper]), Christian Life and Conduct, Psalm hymns, Word of God & Christian Church, Death & Dying, Morning, Evening, After Meals, and For Good Weather. The Orgelbüchlein also has an appendix of eight chorales for General Usage.
The Clavierübung III organ chorale liturgical collection (1739) also focuses on the omnes tempore time with the Mass& Catechism Chorales, BWV 669-689. The hymns involve the Mass sections (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo), the Ten Commandments, the Lord’s Prayer, the sacraments of Baptism and Communion (Lord’s Supper), Penitence. Communion and the related theme of Luther’s “Justification” are found in hymns such as “Es ist das Heil.”
1. Kyrie, Gott Vater in Ewigkeit, BWV 669
2. Christe, Aller Welt Trost, BWV 670
3. Kyrie, Gott Heiliger Geist, BWV 671
4. Kyrie, Gott Vater in Ewigkeit, BWV 672
5. Christe, aller Welt Trost, BWV 673
6. Kyrie, Gott heiliger Geist, BWV 674
7. Allein Gott in der Höh' sei Ehr' (Gloria), BWV 675
8. Allein Gott in der Höh' sei Ehr', BWV 676
9. Fughetta on Allein Gott, BWV 677
10. Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot' (Ten Commandments), BWV 678
11. Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot' (Fughetta), BWV 679
12. Wir glauben all' an einen Gott (Credo), BWV 680
13. Wir glauben all' an einen Gott, BWV 681
14. Vater unser in Himmelreich (Lord’s Prayer), BWV 682
15. Vater unser in Himmelreich, BWV 683
16. Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam (Baptism), BWV 684
17. Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam, BWV 18. Aus tiefer Noth schrei' ich zu dir (Penitence), BWV 686
19. Aus tiefer Noth schrei' ich zu dir, BWV 687
20. Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, BWV 688
21. Jesus Christus, unser Heiland (Fuga), BWV 689
“As it continues, the Trinity season is characterized by themes that involve antithesis, of which the most prominent are God’s judgment versus His mercy, and the qualities of tribulation versus consolation, fear versus hope, , and faith versus doubt in the believer’s conscience,” says Chafe (Ibid.: 14). A running theme is the believer’s rejection of the world versus his anticipation of eternity. Those themes come ever more sharply into focus during the eschatologically oriented last weeks of the season as the believer’s longing to leave the world intensifies and his thoughts turn upward again: the sixteenth Sunday after trinity focuses on death and resurrection, the twentieth on anticipation of the Kingdom of God, the twenty-fourth on the fleeting character of human life and the fear of eternity, the twenty-fifth on the second coming of Christ and the end of the world, and the twenty-sixth on the Last Judgment and the coming of a “new heaven and new earth,” and the twenty-seventh on the final consummation.”
In Bach’s Leipzig hymnal, the Neu Leipzig Gesangbuch (NLGB) of 1682,2 and in other hymn books on Bach’s time to the present, the omnes tempore themes following the Catechism categories established by Martin Luther, varied and also overlapped with the de tempore category of “Lent (Passiontide) (Suffering & Death of Jesus Christ) [also see Death and the Grave (Dying)]. The NLGB following the Catechism section, Christian Life and Conduct and Psalm (Communion) hymns has the following categories: Cross Pe, and Challenges; Word God & Christian Church; Death & Dying; and the Last Days, Resurrection, and Eternal Life. Other categories include Morning and Evening hymns.
Bach’s Initial Church-Year Plan
“It was Bach’s own decision to perform at the main Leipzig service exclusively cantatas of his own composition, a self-imposed task of enormous magnitude, which nonetheless satisfied his deep-seated ambition,” says Richard D. P. Jones in The Creative Development of JSB.3 “During his first year as Leipzig music director, Bach performed at least sixth-three church cantatas, of which forty were new compositions and [at least] twenty-three revivals of existing works from the Weimar or Cöthen periods.”
The chronology of the first cycle follows [ (21) repeats from Weimar or [expansions or Cöthen]:
1723: BWV 75 * 76 * (21) * (185) * 24 * 167 *  *  * 136 * 105 * 46 * 179 * (199) * 69a * 77 * 25 * 119 * 138 * 95 * 148 * 48 * (162) * 109 * 89 * (163?) * [?80b] * 60 * 90 *  * (61) * (63) * 40 * 64; 1724: BWV 190 * 153 * 65 * 154 * (155) * 73 * 81 * 83 * 144 * (181) + (18) * [22/23] * (182) * (4) *  *  * 67 * 104 * (12) * 166 * 86 * 37 * 44 * (172) * 59 *  *  *  * (165)
Bach’s overall plan for a “well-order music to the Glory of God” involving the some sixty Sundays and feast days of the church year was incredibly ambitious and yet well-thought and intentional. For the first seven weeks of Sundays and two feasts, Bach composed mostly two-part cantatas or double performances of two cantatas presented before the sermon and after the sermon and/or the distribution of communion (Lord’s Supper). Bach did not present cantatas for the 5th and 6th Sundays after Trinity (June 27 and July 4). Instead he presented festival works during the previous two weeks: BWV 167, John the Baptist, June 24, and BWV 147, Visitation, July 2. In all, Bach in his first year present double-music 14 times with 21 cantatas and six two-part works on the 63 occasions (W = Weimar composition, *=additional Leipzig material).
BWV Occasions Date
22 + 23 Quniquagesima 2/7/23 and 2/20/24
75 Parts 1 and 2 Trinity 1 5/30/23
76 Parts 1 and 2 Trinity 2 6/6/23
21 (W) Parts 1 and 2 Trinity 3 6/13/23
24 + 185 (W) Trinity 4 6/20/23= 199 (W0
147* (W) Parts 1 and 2 Visitation 7/2/23
186* (W) Parts 1 and 2 Trinity 7 7/11/23
179 + 199 (W) Trinity 11 8/11/23
70* (W) Parts 1 and 2 Trinity 26 11/21/23
181 + 18 (W) Sexagesima 2/13/24
Anh. 199 +182 (W) Annunciation 3/25/24
4 (pre-W) + 31 (W) Easter 4/9/24
59 + 172 (W) Whit 5/28/24
194(C) + 165 (W) Trinity 6/4/24
The cantatas run the gamut from opening chorus & closing chorale (75, 21, 147, 186, 179, 70, 182, 31, 172, 194), solo (24-internal chorus, 76, 185, 199, 181, 18, 199, 59, 165), and chorale (4). Most cantatas internally alternate recitatives and arias in the manner of the original Rudoldtadt/Neumeister type with madrigalian poetic movements. Some are unique such as the test pieces BWV 22 and 23 with aria/chorus, chorale chorus, and recitative/chorale. A few begin with orchestral sinfonias (75, 76, 21, 31, 194-French Overture). See the list of 33 cantata sinfonias, BWV numerical, BCW http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV1045-D2.htm, scroll down to “Sinfonias to Cantatas.”
It is quite possible that when Bach worked with a librettist rather than using an established (printed) text, he dictated the form with preferred movements types. For example, the first four cantatas presented in Leipzig (22, 23, 75, 76 may have been set by Leipzig Burgomaster and Bach champion, Gottfried Lange, says Jones (Ibid.: 119f).4 “In addition, three groups of cantatas have been identified on the basis of similar text structure [with movement types, which may point to common authorship of their librettos” according to Alfred Dürr.5
Cycle 1 Cantata Structures (Movements)
The three basic Leipzig Cycle 1 structures, cantatas, and services, according to Dürr, are: A. biblical text-recitative-aria-recitative-aria-chorale; BWV 136, 105, 46, 179, 69a, 77, 25, 109, 89, and 104; for the Eighth to the 14th Sundays after Trinity, 21st and 22nd Sundays after Trinity, and Second Sunday after Easter (Misericordias Domini). B. (7 movements) Biblical text-recitative-chorale-aria-recitative-aria-chorale; BWV 48, 40, 64, 153, 65 and 67; Trinity 19, Christmas 2 and 3, Sunday after New Year, Epiphany, and First Sunday after Easter (Qusimodogeniti). C. (usually 6 movements) biblical text-aria-chorale-recitative aria-chorale; BWV 144, 166, 86, 37, 44; Septuagesima, Cantate Sunday (Easter 4), Rogate Sunday (Easter 5), Ascension, Exaudi (Easter 6).
The leading libretto candidate is Christian Weiss Sr. (1671-1737), Bach’s pastor and champion at St. Thomas. The C structure Cantatas BWV 37, 44, 86, and 166 as well as Cantatas 67 (B), 75 and 76 (2 parts), 81(solo Epiphany 4), 104 (A), 154 (solo Epiphany 1), and 179 (A), are “hypothetically” attributed to Weiss, says Dürr (Ibid.: 27f) citing Rudolf Wustmann.6 Durr then suggests “Bach compositions that belong to this group [based on form] are divided between two cycles”: Cycle 1, Septugesima (BWV 144, C), Purification (Anh. 199 double) and Easter 4 (Cantate) to Easter 6 (Exaudi), BWV 166 (solo), 86 (C), 37 (C), and 44 (C) and Cycle 2, Easter Monday to Second Sunday after Easter (Misericordias Domini), and Reformation Festival, BWV 6 (C), 42 (solo), 85 (C), and 79 (C).
Also in the realm of speculation but with some collateral evidence are Cycle 1 Cantata libretti of varied structures influenced by or involving Picander (Christian Friedrich Henrici, 1700-64): influences, BWV 25 (Trinity 14, A) and 138 (Trinity 15, chorale fantasia), 148 (Trinity 17, after Picander); and parodies from Cöthen: Easter and Pentecost Mondays and Tuesdays as well as the Trinityfest (BWV 66, 134, 173, 184, 194 double). It also is possible that Weiss participated in some manner in some of these works, possibly teaming with Bach and Picander. As to the Leipzig cantata expansions from Weimar works 70, 186, 147 (Advent Sundays 2-4, 1717, Salomo Franck texts) into two parts with new recitatives, Weiss is most likely to have assisted.
For the second (chorale) cycle of all original, unique works, Bach also began with a two-part chorale Cantata 20, “O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort I” (O Eternity, thou thunderword) for the First Sunday after Trinity (June 11, 1724). However, he composed no other double-works until the heterogeneous, incomplete and extended third cycle, beginning at Advent 1725. Then he turned back to early libretto’s forms involving the Rudolstadt text with two-part works that began each part with biblical dicta, Old Testament, then New, initially presenting 18 works of his cousin Johann Ludwig, between Epiphany and middle Trinity Time and including his own seven Rudolstadt settings alternating in early Trinity Time 1726.
Other Cycle 1 Elements, Innovations
Such varied structures in Cycle 1 are only the tip of the iceberg as far as Bach creative development and invention are concerned, says Jones (Ibid.: 121ff). Among the other textual, stylistic, and innovative elements are the blending of ecclesiastical and operatic elements such as the Vox Christi/Domini and allegorical characters in duets, the blending of hymns and recitatives, and the use of pastorale dance forms in Shepherd works; the “great biblical text choruses that open many of the cantatas from Cycle 1 are one of its defining features” (Ibid.: 123); the closing congregational plain chorale begun in Weimar as well as elaborate interludes and obbligato instruments as well as the blending of different chorales in one cantata; the internal alternating and combining of secular-influences madrigalian texts (recitatives, arias, ariosi); the use of concerto style as well as arresting musical images in the arias; and “the high incidence of dance rhythms” (Ibid.: 129).
Besides insisting on composing and presenting his own works, Bach fought many battles to improve the quality of the music and its performance. Finally, by 1731 Bach had fought most of his battles with civic authority, the Town Council who employed as municipal music director and held the purse-strings as well as approval of the printed service texts (few of which survive). From this time forward, Bach spent the final two decades completing his “well-order church music to the glory of God,” composing vocal and organ sacred song settings, Mass settings and a Christological cycle of feast-day works (the primary responsibility of Bach’s colleagues and sons as Kappelmeister).
While many commentators and Bach scholars have derided the low quality of many of his texts, Bach sought In Leipzig, the crossroads of Luthernism, to understand all manner of doctrinal interests and incorporate positive qualities of Orthodoxy and Pieism, utilizing some 20 librettists from the traditional to innovative, using his creative musical genius to foster the height of verbal expression and interpretation. Beginning with his first cantata cycle as his Leipzig audience experienced them over the next five years when Bach began repeating his Pentecost and Easter works, one “is to be dazzled by the fecundity of his invention, his extraordinary consistency, and the rich diversity of texture, mood and form he managed to achieve,” says John Eliot Gardiner in his recent Bach musical biography, BACH: Music in the Castle of Heaven (Alfred A, Knopf: New York, 2013: 290).
1 Chafe, Analyzing Bach Cantatas (New York Oxford Univ. Press, 2000: 12).
2 NLGB, BACH'S HYMN BOOK: Jürgen Grimm, "Das neu [?] Leipziger Gesangbuch des Gottfried Vopelius (Leipzig 1682),"Berlin: Merseburger, 1969. ML 3168 G75.
3 Jones, The Creative Development of Johann Sebastian Bach, Vol. 1, 1695-1717, “Music to Delight the Spirit “ (Oxford University Press: New York, 2007: 117f).
4 Cited in Hans-Joachim Schültze, “Text und Textdichter” in Christoph Wolff, Die Welt der Bach Kantaten, vol. iii (Stuttgart, 1999:110f).
5 Cited in Cantatas of J. S. Bach, revised and translated by Richard D. P. Jones (Oxford University Press, New York, 2005: 26-28).
6 Wustmann, “Sebastian Nach’s Kirchenkantatentexte, Bach Jahrbuch 1910: 45-62).
Other, mostly English language biographical sources for the first Cantata Cycle, as cited in the Oxford Composers Companions: J. S. Bach, ed. Boyd, Malcolm (Oxford University Press: New York, 1999: 85f).
Day, James, The Literary Background to Bach’s Cantatas (London: 1961).
Leaver, Robin A., The Liturgical Place and Homelitic Purpose of Bach’s Cantatas,” 59 (1985: 9-29).
Meyer, Ulrich, Biblical Quotation in the Cantata Libretti of JSB (Lanham Md. 1997).
Neuman, Werner, Hanbuch der Kantaten JSB (5th ed., Wiesbaden 1984).
Unger, Mevin, Handbook to Bach’s Sacred Cantata Texts (Lanham Md. 1996).
Wolff, Christoph, The World of the Bach Sacred Cantatas, I, Early Sacred Cantatas (New York, 1997).