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Cantata BWV 3
Ach Gott, wie manches Herzeleid [I]
Provenance

Thomas Braatz wrote (January 24, 2003):
The Autograph Score:

The autograph score probably went to W. F. Bach along with most of the other scores from the 2nd yearly cycle (Leipzig). Some of these scores were returned to Leipzig during the decade after Bach’s death. It is not known for certain whether Johann Georg Nacke, who was Christian Friedrich Penzel’s teacher, owned this score for a while before it came into Penzel’s possession. Penzel copied out a set of parts from this score. From Penzel, the score went to Johann Gottlob Schuster, who was Penzel’s nephew. After Schuster’s death (1832), it became part of Franz Hauser’s collection of Bach manuscripts. The original doublets and the parts copied by Penzel now went to the BB, but the original score was separated from this group and had been given to Julius Joseph Maier (1821-1889) as a present. (Maier was a professor of counterpoint in Munich and soon copied out another set of parts from this score.) In the 20th century the ownership of this score changed a number of times: Adolf Baumgartner (Munich); Hedwig Fischer (Berlin); Paul Gottschalk (Berlin); in 1932 it was in the Archive for Photogrammic Musically Outstanding Manuscripts (Vienna); privately owned by someone in Vienna; in 1957 Walter Schatzki, an original manuscript dealer in New York acquired it; it was then, at some point, sold on the open market to Dr. Arthur Wilhelm, the present owner.

The Original Set of Parts:

The original set of parts was already separated into two groups at the time the cantatas were distributed among the heirs in 1750. It is possible that the set of originals without the doublets went to Anna Magdalena Bach and eventually this set found its way to the St. Thomas School in Leipzig where it is located today. The doublets are now located in the BB.

The Title Page of the Autograph Score:

Dominica 2 post Epiphanias | Ach Gott! Wie manches Hertzeleyd. | à | 4 Voci. | 2 Hautb: d’Amour | 2 Violini | Viola. | e Continuo | di J. S. Bach.

On the 1st Page of the Score:

J. J. Dominica [previous word abbreviated] 2. post Ephiphanias Ach Gott! Wie manches Hertzeleyd.

Some of the mvts. are indicated such as “Recit.”; “Aria”; “Choral”

The Original Parts:

The bulk of the copy work was completed by Johann Andreas Kuhnau who was assisted by 3 anonymous copyists and W. F. Bach who did the continuo doublet. J. S. Bach did the trombone part, revised the other parts, and made corrections.

The parts include the following (15 parts):

Soprano
Alto
Tenore
Basso
Trombona/Corno
Hautbois 1:d’Amour
Hautb: 2.d’Amour
Violino 1mo
Violino 1mo (Doublet)
Violino 2do
Violino 2do. (Doublet)
Viola
Continuo (partly figured bass)
Continuo (Doublet)
Continuo (transposed and figured)

Text:

The text is based upon chorale text by Martin Moller (1587) which in turn is based upon the Latin, “Jesu dulcis memoria.”
The unknown librettist has taken over directly/literally verses 1, 2, and 18 and placed them as mvts. 1, 2 and 6. In Mvt. 2, the individual lines of the 2nd verse are interrupted by short recitative sections. Verses 9 and 17 are only hinted at in the libretto text. The other verses were used as follows:

Verses 3 to 6 = Mvt. 2
Verses 5 to 6 = Mvt. 3
Verses 7 to 10= Mvt. 4
Verses 15 to 17 = Mvt. 5

Date of 1st Performance

The cantata was composed for its 1st performance on January 14, 1725. There are no direct indications that this cantata was ever performed again under Bach.

Thomas Braatz wrote (February 11, 2007):
BWV 3 - Provenance Revisited

In the previous round of discussions, I had given the provenance of BWV 3 (autograph score and original set of parts). In the light of the very recent discussions on the copy procedure that JSB used, I would like to expand the list of original parts to include the information about who copied what at what point in the copy session. Also included are some new observations on my part based on information which is available:


The Original Parts:

Creation of Parts: in the evening shortly before the 1st performance of BWV 3 on January 14, 1725

The bulk of the copy work was again completed by Johann Andreas Kuhnau who was assisted by 3 anonymous copyists and W. F. Bach who did the continuo doublet. J. S. Bach did the trombone part, revised the other parts, and made corrections.

JSB (Johann Sebastian Bach): almost 40
AMB (Anna Magdalena Bach): 24 [absent]
WFB (Wilhelm Friedemann Bach): 15
JAK (Johann Andreas Kuhnau): 21 JAK was a Thomaner from 1718-1728
CGM (Christian Gottlob Meißner): 17 [absent]
Anonymous IIe (a possible Thomaner?)
Anonymous IIf (a possible Thomaner?)
Main Copyist C (a possible Thomaner?)


The parts include the following (15 parts):

Soprano
JAK: mvts. 1-2, 5
JSB: Mvt. 6

Alto
JAK: mvts. 1-2, 5
JSB: Mvt. 6

Tenore
JAK: mvts. 1-2, 4
JSB: Mvt. 6

Basso
JAK: mvts. 1-3
JSB: Mvt. 6

Trombona/Corno
JSB: Mvt. 1, Mvt. 6

Hautbois 1:d'Amour
JAK: Mvt. 1
Anonymous IIf: Mvt. 5
JSB: Mvt. 6

Hautb: 2.d'Amour
JAK: Mvt. 1
JSB: Mvt. 5, Mvt. 6

Violino 1mo
JAK: Mvt. 1, Mvt. 5
JSB: Mvt. 6

Violino 1mo (Doublet)
Anonymous IIe: Mvt. 1, Mvt. 5
WFB: Mvt. 6

Violino 2do
JAK: Mvt. 1
JSB: Mvt. 6

Violino 2do. (Doublet)
Anonymous IIf: Mvt. 1
WFB: Mvt. 6

Viola
JAK: Mvt. 1
JSB: Mvt. 6

Continuo (partly figured bass)
JAK: mvts. 1-5
JSB: Mvt. 6
unknown hand: partly figured bass

Continuo (Doublet)
WFB: mvts. 1-4, 5 (up to m. 64)
JSB: mvts. 5 (from 65 to end), 6

Continuo (transposed and figured)
Main Copyist C: mvts. 1-4
JSB: mvts. 5, 6 and all the figures


The true workhorse again during this copy session is JAK with JSB mainly filling in the final Mvt. 6 (chorale) and once again copying the Trombone/Corno entirely by himself.

As usual, JSB had not yet finished composing the final chorale (Mvt. 6), when JAK began copying the instrumental parts from the score. JAK began with the topmost instrumental line (oboe d'amore I) on the score and gradually worked his way down the page. How do we know this? JAK is only able to copy Mvt. 1, not Mvt. 5 which also calls for both oboi d'amore, because in the autograph score, the last part of Mvt. 5 is on the reverse side of the same page that has the score for Mvt. 6 (Choral.). This may explain the unusual break in the Continuo doublet and Continuo transposed parts as well.

When JAK has worked his way down to the 1st violin part, JAK is finally now able to include Mvt. 5, but strenough he still does not copy Mvt. 6 which ought to be available to him at that point.

Notice that when JAK gets down to the vocal parts, he is able to include Mvt. 5 for the Soprano/Alto duet.

CGM does not participate in any part of the copy procedure. In his place, other unidentifiable copyists are put to work in a stopgap fashion. Are these perhaps a few of JSB's best Thomaner from the Primary Choir? Located in the same building where Bach lived, they would conceivably be available in the evening after school was over (no need to go outside the building and no worry over missing the curfew).

Notice also the absence of AMB, who may have been occupied with a sick baby on the evening when this copy session took place.

The general impression obtained from the careful examination of the copy procedure used here for BWV 3 is one of 'working against the clock'. JSB still had not finished composing the final chorale and perhaps was still finishing Mvt. 5 when JAK began copying out the parts. With more time to spare, a more methodical procedure could have been used. If JSB had composed the entire score earlier with more time for a copyist like JAK to finish the entire copy task alone there would not have to be any switching around of parts as they moved from one person to another. JAK was a Thomaner who lived in the same building as Bach did. During the day, he would have been occupied with his school duties (attending classes, etc.) and most likely would only have a solid block of time for an activity such as this in the evening. This is one more reason to consider that these copy sessions took place the evening before the actual 1st performance early the next morning. The appearance of these yet undetermined anonymous copyists also seems to point to the possibility that these stopgap copyists could be called upon at a moment's notice because they live in the same building where JSB's apartment is located and are easily accessible in case of an emergency such as this one (AMB and CGM not being available).

 

Cantata BWV 3: Details & Complete Recordings | Recordings of Individual Movements | Discussions: Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4

References: Main Page | Cantatas BWV 1-50 | Cantatas BWV 51-100 | Cantatas BWV 101-150 | Cantatas BWV 151-200 | Cantatas BWV 201-224 | Other Vocal BWV 225-249 | Chorales BWV 250-300 | Chorales BWV 301-350 | Chorales BWV 351-400 | Chorales BWV 401-438 | Geistliche Lieder BWV 439-507 | AMN BWV 508-524 | Vocal Works BWV Anh | BGA | NBA | BC: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | Sources
Discussions of BWV Numbering System: Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3

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Last update: ýOctober 17, 2011 ý06:31:47