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Musical Context of Bach Cantatas
Motets & Chorales for 2nd Sunday after Trinity

 

Readings: Epistle: 1 John 3: 13-18; Gospel: Luke 14: 16-24

Dates in the lifetime of J.S. Bach, including works composed for the event

Motets and Chorales for the 2nd Sunday after Trinity (Trinity 2)

Douglas Cowling wrote (May 15, 2011):
THE MUSICAL CONTEXT OF BACH'S CANTATAS:
MOTETS AND CHORALES FOR THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

SOURCES:

* BACH'S HYMN BOOK:
Jürgen Grimm, "Das neu [?] Leipziger Gesangbuch des Gottfried Vopelius
(Leipzig 1682)",
Berlin: Merseburger, 1969.
ML 3168 G75

* BACH'S MOTET COLLECTION:
Otto Riemer, "Erhard Bodenschatz und sein Florilegium Portense"
Schünigen: Kaminsky,1927
ML 410 B67R4

NOTES for TRINITY 2:

* Anyone have biographical details for M. Mart Roth? Or a source for the text (not in Vulgate)

* The general hymns include "Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern" and "Wachet auf ruft uns die Stimme," both of which Bach used for famous cantatas on other Sundays. It would appear that Bach's free use of chorale tunes mirrors the rather general groupings of his hymn book.

1) MOTETS for Introit, Before Sermon at mass and vespers for Choir II, and During Communion:
i) "in Domino Gaudet" (8 voices) - M. Mart Roth (?)
ii) "Venite ad me" (8 voices) - Vincentius Bertholusius (1550-1608)
Text: Matthew 11:28-30
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy and my burden is light.
Sample: "Ego Flos Campi" - V. Bertholusius http://tinyurl.com/6cxffd9

2) HYMN OF DAY (de tempore)
"Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu Christ"

3) CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns:
"Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern"
"Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein” [used in BWV 2 also for Trinity 2]. CM: Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein
"Wachet auf ruft uns die Stimme"
"Es spricht den Unwissened Mund wohl"

Motets and Chorales for Trinity 2 cont'd

Douglas Cowling wrote (May 17, 2011):
Thomas Braatz forwarded a link to an important dissertation on the Bodenschatz collection of motets which Bach used every Sunday: http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Chaney%20Mark.pdf?osu1180461416

"FOUR MOTETS FROM THE FLORILEGIUM PORTENSE" by Mark Allen Chaney
(Thesis, Ohio State, 2007)
[Abstract below]

It gives much background to the collection which arguably was the most important body of works performed by Bach's choirs. I would recommend the Introduction as a good overview of the relationship of polyphonic motets to the Lutheran liturgy. It also provides modern editions of four works previously unpublished:

Bodenschatz: Quam pulchra es
Valcampi: Senex puerum
Roth: Lieblich und schön seyn
Gumpelzhaimer: Iubilate Deo

The Gumpelzhaimer is an especially fine double-choir motet.

And to amend my previous posting:

THE MUSICAL CONTEXT OF BACH'S CANTATAS:
MOTETS AND CHORALES FOR THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

1) MOTETS for Introit, Before Sermon at mass and vespers for Choir II, and During Communion:
i) "in Domino Gaudet" (8 voices) - Martin Roth (1580 - 1610)

It would valuable to have this PDF available here on the BCML site.

*****************************************************
Abstract:

In 1618, a German clergyman and musician named Erhard Bodenschatz published a collection of 115 motets under the title Florilegium Portense. A second volume of 150 pieces appeared three years later. Both collections contain motets of five to eight voices mostly in Latin, though a few are in German. They contain works of Hassler, Lasso, Gabrieli, and a host of lesser-known composersóas well as several pieces by Bodenschatz himself.

The purpose of the collection was to provide a repertory of motets of high quality for practical liturgical use. The collection includes music by both German and Italian composers, and the style of the music ranges from Palestrina-like counterpoint to Venetian polychoral style. Both volumes were published with a figured basis generalis to facilitate performance with organ accompaniment in the Baroque practice that was just then in its infancy. The Florilegium Portense is an important collection because it was so widely used throughout central Germany; it was still being reprinted a century after its first publication.

There is very little published scholarship on the Florilegium Portense. There is no modern edition of the collection, and although some of the pieces are available in various Gesamtausgabe and Denkm‰ler editions, most of the music remains unedited. The purpose of this project is to explain the significance of this collection, to briefly summarize the style of the music it contains, and to offer a modern edition of four motets from the collection that have not previously been published.

 

Chorales for the Second Sunday After Trinity

William Hoffman wrote (June 15, 2011):
Hymns for the Second Sunday After Trinity reveal several similarities to those of the First Sunday After Trinity. They reflect the Epistle themes of the Love of God and God's Love through Grace, as well as the themes of the Gospel Reading Lukan parables of Dives (the Rich man) and Lazarus (the blind beggar) in Chapter 16:19-31, that he who claims to love God will love his brother, and the Parable of the Great Supper (Chapter 14:16-24) where the downtrodden are invited to come as the guests at the feast in place of those well-off who have refused the invitation.

Specifically, several of the chorales are repeats of the previous Sunday, as Hymns of the Day and Communion Hymns, especially the Trinity Time ubiquitous "Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesus Christ." At the same time, other popular hymns are introduced, particularly Philip Niccolai's versatile "Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern" and "Wachet auf ruft uns die Stimme," as well as Martin Luther's "Es wolle uns Gott genädig sein."

Chorales are interchangeable, as hymns used in both Sundays after Trinity: for example, "Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein," a Communion Hymn for the previous Sunday becomes the featured hymn for Bach's Chorale Cantata BWV 2 on the Second Sunday after Trinity, and "Es spricht den Unwissened Mund wohl," the Hymn of the Day in the First Sunday after Trinity, is the Communion Hymn for the Second, Ninth and 20th Sundays after Trinity.


HYMN OF DAY (de tempore)

"Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu Christ" (I call to you, Lord Jesus Christ) in the <Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> (NLGB 627) is one of the most ubiquitous Trinity Time chorales. It is assigned as the Hymn of the Day for the Second, 19th and 21st Sundays after Trinity and as a communion hymn on the Sundays after Trinity +5, +6, +8, and +22. Bach chose "Ich ruft zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" as the subject of Chorale Cantata BWV 177 (BCW Discussion June 26), for the Fourth Sunday after Trinity, presented in 1732, to fill that service gap in Cycle 2. Bach also uses the first stanza as the closing chorale with violin obbligato (No. 6) in Cantata BWV 185, "Barmherziges Herze der ewigen Liebe" (Merciful heart of love everlasting [by Richard Stokes]), premiered in Weimar in 1715 and possibly repeated in 1716, in Leipzig in 1723 and 1746-47. During the pre-Cantata Cycle 3 Trinity Time of 1725, a libretto book shows that for the Third Sunday after Trinity, June 17, the entire chorale is printed as a pure-hymn cantata but is not related to Cantata BWV 177. It is also listed as the NLGB Hymn of the Day for the Third Sunday After Epiphany <omne tempore>ordinary time, as well as for SeptuagesSexagesimae Sundays. The melody of Johann Agricola's 1529 five-verse hymn appears as a chorale prelude in the Orgelbüchelin (No. 91), BWV 639, in the fifth <omne tempore> listing of 26 after the Catechism, under the heading "Christian Life and Conduct." Its variant setting is BWV Anh.II 73.

CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns:

"Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern" (How lovely shines the morning star), Philip Niccolai's versatile, popular 1597 hymn (7 stanzas), is a general hymn found in the 1682 Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch (NLGB), No. 814, as the Hymn of the Day for the 20th Sunday after Trinity (BWV 49/6) as well as a hymn for the 27th Sunday after Trinity. Other Bach uses are: Cantatas BWV 1/1,6 (chorale cantata, Annunciation), BWV 36/4 (First Sunday in Advent), BWV 37/3 (Ascension), BWV 61/6 (First Sunday in Advent), BWV 172/6 (Pentecost Sunday), BWV Anh 199/3 (Annunciation, lost), possibly surviving as free-standing Chorale BWV 436 in E major; and the miscellaneous Organ-chorale BWV 739. It is listed but not set in the Orgelbüchlein chorale prelude collection <omne tempore> section as No. 129, "The Word of God in the Christian Church," the first of seven unset chorales for such use http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale015-Eng3.htm

"Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein ((Ah God, look down from heaven), in the (NLGB) No. 660, also Pulpit & Communion Hymn, Trinity +1). Martin Luther 1524 six-stanza setting of Psalm 12, "A Prayer for Help," is the hymn for the Chorale Cantata BWV 2, for the Second Sunday after Trinity, 1724. The chorale melody is found in the opening fantasia, tenor recitative, alto trio aria, and closing four-part chorale.
Chorale text: BCW http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale026-Eng3.htm.

"Wachet auf ruft uns die Stimme," Philipp Niccolai's 3-stanza 1599 hymn, is found in the Schein Cantional Hymnbook for the First Sunday After Trinity and in the NLGB No. 819, for the 27th Sunday After Trinity, which Bach observes with his 1731 Chorale Cantata No. 140, using the three verses as the opening chorale fantasia the middle (No. 4) tenor trio aria, and the closing (No. 7), his only settings of another popular Niccolai hymn. The remaining commentary texts possibly are by Picander. Text found in BCW www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV140.htm , Text.

"Es spricht den Unwissened Mund wohl" (The mouth of fools doth God confess) (NLGB No. 662, also Hymn of the Day, Tr. +1). German and English text of all six stanzas are found at http://www.musicanet.org/robokopp/Lieder/espricht.htm.


OTHER CHORALES used in Bach Cantatas for the Second Sunday After Trinity

"Es wolle uns Gott genädig sein" (May it be God's will to be gracious to us) is Luther's three-stanza 1523 version of Psalm 67, "Song of Thanksgiving" (NLGB 680). Psalm 67 also is listed in the NLGB as a communion hymn.
Bach's uses of the chorale are:
1. Cantata BWV 76/7 (S. 1), plain chorale closing Part 1;
2. Cantata BWV 76/14 (S.3), "Es danke, Gott, und lobe dich" (May thanks, God, and praise be given to you), plain chorale closing Part 2.
3. Stanza 3 also is found in Cantata 69/6 plain chorale in D Major, as the new ending for the 1748 Town Council inauguration, parody of Cantata 69a, "Lode den Herren, meine Seele" (Praise the Lord, my soul) originally for Trinity +12, 1723. The festive setting with three trumpets and timpani could be from Cantata 190a/7, Augsburg Confession 1730. BCW description: <Mvt. 7 (S. 3) is taken from the chorale by Martin Luther "Es wolle Gott uns gnädig sein" (1523) based on Psalm 67>;
4. There are two free-standing, four-part chorales: BWV 311 in F# Major and its variant, BWV 312 in E Major, probably dating from 1730 onwards and likely used as a communion hymn or a hymn closing the main service or in a vesper service on an early Sunday after Trinity.
*German-only translation of all three stanzas found at: www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV76.htm, Chorale Text.

The June 30, 1726 performance of a cantata for the Second Sunday after Trinity is not documented. It is possible that the appropriate, extant Rudolstadt 1726 text, "Und der Herr Zebaoth wird allen Völkern," was set by Bach, as he had done for Cantata BWV 39 for the previous First Sunday after Trinity, or that he utilized a Johann Ludwig Bach Cantata, as he had done with JLB-17, for the Feast of John the Baptist, on Monday, June 24, as well as on the following Tuesday, July 2 for the Feast of the Annunciation, with JLB-13. No J. L. Bach cantata for the Second Sunday after Trinity is extant. It is quite possible that Bach composed no setting, given his experience in the initial Cantata Cycle of 1723 of performing no cantatas on the Sundays After Trinity following the Feasts of John the Baptist and the Annunciation - a gap in the otherwise full cycle that he never filled.

 

Musical Context of Bach Cantatas: Table of Motets & Chorales for Events in the Lutheran Church Year

Lutheran Church Year: Main Page and Explanation | LCY - Event Table | LCY 2000-2005 | LCY 2006-2010 | LCY 2011-2015
Sundays & Holidays in the Lifetime of J.S. Bach | Performance Dates of Bach’s Vocal Works
Readings from the Epistles and the Gospels for each Event | Motets & Chorales for Events in the LCY
Discussions: Events in the Lutheran Church Year: Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5 | Part 6 | Readings from the Bible

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Last update: ýSeptember 10, 2011 ý09:48:40