William Hoffman wrote (April 1, 2016):
Easter Tuesday, Cantata 134 Intro. & Calendar/Chorales
Bach’s Easter Tuesday, Cantata 134, “Ein Herz, das seinen Jesum lebend weiß” (A heart that knows its Jesus living), a virtual parody from a festive dialogue Cöthen dramatic dialogue was premiered on Leipzig, on April 11, 1724. Only the recitatives underwent revision, musical and textual through parody, for reperformances on March 27, 1731, and possibly April 12, 1735. The structure remained unchanged involving three da capo dance-style movements, two arias and a closing chorus, interspersed with three recitatives, lasting half an hour. Unlike Cantata 66 for Easter Tuesday, Bach did not add a closing church chorale but did change the text to accommodate the gospel reading, Luke 24:36-47 (Jesus appears to his disciples in the upper room), and the Epistle, Acts 13:26-33 (Paul’s sermon to the gentiles at Antioch). Cantata 134 remained virtually unchanged from the original serenade in movement structure, with the elimination of two movements (nos. 6-7), an alto aria and tenor recitative. There is no closing chorale.1
Cantata 134 was premiered at the early main service of the Nikolaikirche before the gospel sermon of Archdeacon Friedrich Wilhelm Schütz (1677-1739), says Martin Pettzoldt in Bach Commentary, Vol. 2, Advent to Trinityfest.2 The texts for the day’s gospel and epistle in Bach’s time, in Luther’s 1545 translation and the English Authorised (King James) Version 1611, is found at http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Read/Easter-Tuesday.htm. The polyphonic motet is a setting of the introit Psalm 16, Conserva me, Domine, Protect me, O God (KJV), found at http://christiananswers.net/bible/psa16.html.
“The text, singing the praises of the risen Christ, is full of adulatory phrases of a kind that prevails in homage cantatas addressed to earthly princes and potentates; the recitatives are long (except for the first) and shared between two ‘characters’; the vocal lines (especially for the tenor) have a rather high tessitura, characteristic of the Cöthen works; the lyrical items . . . are all ample da capo structures, with long ritornellos, which seem to invites some choreography; and the style of the music, in which majior keys prevail, is strongly secular and dance-like in tone,” says Malcolm Boyd in his Cantata 134 essay in the Oxford Composer Companions: JSB.3
Cantata 134 Origin
<<The origin of Cantata 134 is discussed in detail in Aryeh Oron’s introduction to BCML Discussion Part 1 (March 16, 2002), http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV134-D.htm. <<Cantata for the 3rd Day of Easter (Easter Tuesday) ‘Ein Herz, das seinen Jesum lebend weiß' (A heart that knows its Jesus living). In its original form, this was a secular Cantata BWV 134a ‘Die Zeit, die Tag und Jahre macht’ (Time, that creates days and years), a congratulatory ode on New Year's Day (Serenata) 1719 to honour the birthday of Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen. Only last week we celebrated the same event of the same of persona with Cantata BWV 66, which was based on Cantata BWV 66a, composed by Bach to celebrate the Prince’s birthday [December 10] in the previous year (1718).
The secular homage cantata BWV 134a was for two voices: a tenor in the role of ‘Zeit’ (time) and an alto representing ‘Göttlische Vorsehung’ (divine providence), both of which Bach retained for the sacred adaptation. Both libretti are supposed to have been written by Bach. The Gospel, Luke 24: 36-47, relating how the rising Jesus appeared to the Twelve, occurs only briefly in the last two lines of the duet. Still, Bach must have worked hard at this adaptation, since three versions of the libretto are known to exist.>>
Revision Details and Analysis
Virtually now revision was done from the original serenade, BWV 134a, in the closing chorus and two da capo arias and chorus, while Bach even retained the recitative original music with parodied text then altered the three movements in subsequent revisions, observes Julian Mincham in his Introduction to Cantata 134, http://www.jsbachcantatas.com/documents/chapter-49-bwv-134.htm. << The ′dialogue′ writing for two voices in four of its six movements betrays the secular origin of this cantata, C 134a, composed in Cöthen around five years earlier (Alfred Dürr p 284).4 Bach clearly considered it to be suitable for his first Leipzig Easter celebrations although, oddly, he appears not to have appended a chorale. He reused the cantata in the 1730s and on this occasion re-composed the three recitatives while making some minor amendments to the other movements (ibid p 284). Some albums offer both versions; Koopman, for example, has recorded them in their complete forms in box ten of his cantata set. (Note that due to the dialogue legacy of this cantata, there are no solo roles for soprano or bass).
Whilst it is clear that in the original secular version the tenor and alto represent Time and Divine Providence respectively, it is not clear whether this still applies to the sacred arrangements. It could be that here they represent, as in Bach′s later dialogue cantatas, Christ and the Soul. However, in those works the Soul is usually portrayed initially as an unwilling and tremulous bride; the drama of these works, such as it is, comes from Christ winning its confidence and commitment. If in C 134 the alto represents the Soul, it is a very compliant one from the start, offering little more to the dialogue than agreement with, and reinforcement of, the tenor′s maxims.>>
An analysis of the recitative reworking is found in Mincham’s Commentary to BCML Discussions Part 2, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV134-D2.htm. << The original reworking of BWV 134a, however, comes at the other end of the scale, falling into the category of most minimal revision. From what we know of Bach's output we know that he must have worked at great speed and it is reasonable to conjecture that he may well have produced this particular revision in an afternoon or evening. Much of the original, including the two arias and the concluding chorus is untouched but for the occasional detail of word setting. However, the recitatives show progressive reworking.
The first retains the phrase and harmonic structure of the original with some melodic embellishments. The second retains a degree of the structure but moves further away from the original. The last (one of the recitatives, along with the alto aria is dropped for the cantata) displays vestiges only of the original.
There is doubtless a potential academic thesis here for the student who wishes to compare, analytically these recits and to attempt to determine whether Bach made changes for textual, imagic or purely musical reasons.
Two final questions. BWV 134 is dominated by the idea of dualism. All movements except the tenor aria use pairs of voices (even the chorus has a number of paired entries). Doubtless this would have had symbolic significance for Bach in the Easter context. I'd be interested in people's ideas about what this might be. Secondly, Bach did not attach the usual closing chorale. Why? Certainly it would have been unusual to end with two choral movements (chorus and choral) following each other. But he could have solved that by changing the order of the earlier movements. Any ideas? [There wrare occasions during the church year when Bach dispensed with a closing chorale because none was designated for that service in the hymnbook.]
Rerecordings, I don't know how many conductors offer both BWV 134 and 134B. Koopman does, in his tenth box of the complete works.>>
Peter Smaill’s short but insightful commentary on the palindrome structure and theology of Cantata 134 in BCML Discussions Part 2 (Ibid., March 26, 2006): << The parody of Coethen material by BWV 134,"Ein Herz das seine Jesum lebend weiss", its third metamorphosis, displays an interesting structure which has not yet been examined by the usual sources. My understanding (from Dürr) is that the recorded versions are of the final form, after 1731, rather than the version for 11 April 1724, but this observation should apply regardless.
The central structure is symmetrical: Recitative (AT), Aria (AT), Recitative (AT), with the middle aria having an odd number of lines, five, thus centring the work in terms of its poetic layout on "der Sieger erwecket die Freudigen Lieder" ("The Victor arouses joyful songs"). The "Christus Victor" image also features in the last line of the final chorus, a theological standpoint examined with reference to the SJP in Jaroslav Pelikan's "Bach among the Theologians". Here the image becomes emphasised as the central theme of the work as well as in the "abgesang", the final sentiment of the work.
The Tenor's first-line "lieder" are also thus re-emphasised by the central message, the "Victor's songs.", creating a further symettrical balance in the text. The comparison is the highly structured BWV 63, "Christen Aetzet diesen Tag," from Christmas 1723 That Cantata is, as previously noted, of palindromic form centring on a seven verse recitative, the equally doctrinal "In lauter Heil und Gnaden" ([Suffering.....] "is turned into pure salvation and Grace").
What demands are made of the Tenor, on stage throughout! Whittaker uses a lovely expression for his solo spot: "[BWV 134/2], of which the first 144 bars are missing from the manuscript, long and calls for a tenor robusto!">>
Aryeh Oron wrote (March 23, 2002): Commentary BCW http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Guide/BWV134-Guide.htm. <<The background below is taken completely from W. Murray Young’s book ‘The Cantatas of J.S. Bach – An Analytical Guide’. The English translations are by Francis Browne, a member of the BCML. Mvt. 1: Recitative for Tenor & Alto, Continuo: “Ein Herz, das seinen Jesum lebend weiß” (A heart that knows its Jesus living). The tenor begins by citing that "Ein Herz, das seinen Jesum lebend weiss, / Empfindet Jesu neue Güte." (A heart that knows its Jesus living, / feels the new loving-kindness of Jesus.) Following this, he adds, " ... and writes only in his saviour's praise." The alto voice adds the final Arioso: "Wie freuet sich ein gläubiges Gemüte!" (how a believing soul is happy!) [Bb Major; 4/4].
Mvt. 2: Aria for Tenor; Oboe I/II, Violino I/II, Viola, Continuo: “Auf, Gläubige, singet die lieblichen Lieder” (Up, believers, sing the delightful songs). In heroic style, the tenor exhorts believers to pay homage to the Lord with songs of thanks. Noteworthy are the high-noted repeats of "Auf, Gläubige" (Up, believers), with interjections of "auf" repeated in a series of ascending tones as the [gigue-style] aria develops. Even the text dances with the felicity-motif from beginning to end. The idea of the living Saviour in the title recurs in the last half of the aria (as it will again in the final chorus). The thought and its musical expression make this aria especially memorable [Bb Major 3/8 gigue style].
Mvt. 3: Recitative in Dialogue for Tenor & Alto, Continuo: “Wohl dir, Gott hat an dich gedacht” (You are fortunate, God has thought of you). The singers alternately discourse in dialogue about how Christ defends us from the wiles of the enemy (Satan), until even the last enemy (death) is overcome by Him [G minor to Eb Major; 4/4].
Mvt. 4: Aria (Duet) for Alto & Tenor; Violino I/II, Viola, Continuo: “Wir danken und preisen dein brünstiges Lieben” (We thank and praise your fervent love). With the orchestral accompaniment playing a minuet, this long duet (ten minutes in duration) continues the theme of praise and thanks, with the joy-motif apparent in voices and instruments. The long instrumental ritornelli remind the listener of Bach's attention to his composition of the Brandenburg Concerti about this time. The last part of the aria is treated in florid fashion, especially in their runs on the verbs "erwechet" (awakens), "erscheint" (appears), “tröstet" (consoles), and "starket" (strengthens). Here we also find Bach's only reference to the Gospel for the day [Eb Major; 2/2 minuet style].
Mvt. 5: Recitative for Tenor & Alto; Continuo: “Doch wirke selbst den Dank in unserm Munde” (But bring about yourself the thanks in our mouths). Not in dialogue this time; the tenor narrates the first part, and the alto the last. Both express in turn their thanks to God for His protection against evil, and for His gift of salvation [c minor to Bb Major; 4/4].
Mvt. 6: Chorus; Oboe I/II, Violino I col Soprano, Violino II coll'Alto, Viola col Tenore, Continuo): “Erschallet, ihr Himmel, erfreue dich, Erde” (Resound, you heavens, rejoice, earth). Seems more a duet for two separate choirs of soprano and bass voices than a chorus in the usual sense. The orchestral ritornelli, before and after the vocal sections, are very long - in fact the whole chorus is much longer than the duet (Mvt. 4) - and again the rhythm is a [3/8 gigue-style] passepied dance form akin to a minuet. The joy-motif, symbolic of Easter, pervades the whole chorus from the beginning. Note the coloratura runs on "Schar." The last line emphasizes Christ's triumph; as the melody rises, it betokens Christ's victory, which is the consolation of all believers on this earth. This is another marvelous chorus which, although derived from a secular cantata, proves that Bach can apply his religious feeling to convert praise for princes into praise for God. The sacred and the secular find common ground in Bach's mystical vision expressed in his music [Bb Major; 3/8 gigue style].
Easter Monday, Tuesday Calendar, Chorales
Bach presented the following works for Easter Tuesdays:
4/11/1724 (1) BWV 134I Ein Herz, das seinen Jesum lebend weiß Chorus/parody; no closing chorale
4/3/1725 (2) (?4) Christ lag in Todesbanden repeat
and (?158) Der Friede sei mit dir solo SB/ borrowed
4/23/1726 (3) (JLB11) Er machet uns ledenbid solo, J.L. Bach; no closing chorale
?4/19/1729 (4) BWV 145, P.30 Ich lebe, mein Herz, in deinem Ergötzen chorus/borrowed;
3/27/1731 (BWV 134II) Ein Herz, das seinen Jesum lebend weiß repeat, revised
?4/12/1735 (BWV 134III) Ein Herz, das seinen Jesum lebend weiß repeat, revised.
For Easter Monday and Tuesday, 1736, Bach performed two cantatas from Gottfried Heinrich Stoezel’s “Names of Christ” cycle: 1736-04-02 Mo Ostermontag - G.H. Stölzel: Ob ich schon wandert' im finstern Tal, Mus. A 15:146 + Wandele vor mir, und sei fromm, Mus. A 15:147; 1736-04-03 Di Osterdienstag - G.H. Stölzel: Ich will euch nicht Waisen lassen, ich komme zu euch, Mus. A 15:151 + Ich will euch trösten, wie einen seine Mutter tröstet, Mus. A 15:152.
For Easter Tuesday, Bach’s puzzling use of Easter chorales on Easter Tuesday in Leipzig seems to reflect a lack of interest, as he also did with Easter Monday. In 1724, for Easter Monday, he used the chorale “Christ ist erstanden” (S.3) to close the dialogue parody from Köthen, BWV 66. In 1725, Bach composed no new work, either a chorale cantata or a repeat of the traditional cantata form (biblical dictum/internal chorale) of the day before, EasMonday, Cantata 6. Instead, he began the first repeat of a previous Leipzig service cantata, BWV 4, “Christ lag in Todesbanden,” and probably paired it with a hybrid old-new Cantata BWV 158, “Der Friede sei mit dir” (Peace be with you), Christ’s greeting to his disciples, blending old music from a Weimer Purification work (Nos. 2-3) with newly-composed music (No. 1 recitative and 4 plain chorale), ending with a new setting of Stanza 5, “Here is the true Easter Lamb, “ from “Christ lag in Todesbanden.” In 1729 in the Picander cycle, Bach composed BWV 145, Ich lebe, mein Herz, in deinem Ergötzen , preceeded by two insertions, an opening (rare) plain chorale, C. Neumann “Auf, mein Herz” (S.1) and a borrowed chorus, and closing with a plain chorale, Hermann’s “Erschienen ist (S.14).
Günther Stiller (Bach & Liturgical Life in Leipzig: 239) lists three hymns in the Leipzig hymn schedules assigned for the Third Easter Day (Main and vesper services): “Ach bleibe uns, Hert Jesu Christ,” “Erschienen ist der herrlich Tag,” and “Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist.”
Interestingly, Stiller (p. 87), identifies “Heut triumphieret Gottes Sohn” as the opening hymn in the morning and vesper services for Easter Tuesday and Ascension Day. Bach use of the triple-beat chorale “Erschienen ist der herrliche Tag” is found in two four-voice chorale settings in Cantata BWV 67/4 (S.1) Quasimodogeniti 1724 (?Ch. Weiss libretto), and in BWV 145/5 (S. 14), Easter Tuesday 1729 (Picander Text) and in chorale prelude BWV 629, Orgelbüchlein No. 38.
Three facts about the surviving Bach cantata materials for Easter Tuesday show that there is no separate primary chorale specified for the third day of the Easter Festival, that Bach omitted chorales from his first cycle Cantata BWV 134 and JLB-11 in the third cycle; and that it appears for the second cycle that Cantata BWV 158 was presented on a double bill, with a repeat of Cantata 4, <Christ lag in Todesbanden>, on April 3, 1725 at the University Church. Cantata 158 closes with the fifth verse of “Christ lag,” “Here is the true Easter lamb.” This collateral evidence could suggest that Bach had no need to compose a chorale cantata for this feast day.
There is only a slight possibility that Bach considered Stolzhagen’s six-verse “Heut triumphiret Gottes Sohn” as a chorale cantata. In Leipzig it was the Introit Hymn for the Easter Festival and the Vespers Hymn for Ascension Day. Bach first set the chorale as an <Orgelbüchlein> prelude, BWV 630(a) (Ob. No. 39) in its earliest Easter setting (1708-12, Stinson). The third stanza is found in the Easter Monday “lost” Emmaus Cantata BWV Anh. 190/6, “Ich bin ein Pilgrim auf der Welt” (I am a pilgrim in the world; 1729 Picander text only) and is quite possibly the four-part setting, BWV 342. The full six-verse German hymn text is found in http://www.gesangbuch.org/lyrics/h0035.html.
Bach’s Köthen Vocal Repertory
Bach’s Köthen Vocal repertory, from which music for five sacred cantatas survives, is examined in detail in the Cantata 134 BCML Discussions Part 3, Week of August 2, 2009, BCML http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV134-D3.htm. << William Hoffman wrote (August 2, 2009): BWV 134a: New Years in Köth. While Bach scholars have spent much of the 20th century seeking some 100 presumed lost sacred cantatas, the only significant group of vocal works to surface are as many as 24 secular serenades and sacred cantatas Bach possibly composed in Köthen. During his six-year tenure from 1718 to 1723 at the Calvinist Reform Court, Bach possibly produced pairs of secular and sacred vocal pieces for just two occasions: New Year's Day celebrations for the Anhalt-Köthen principality and Prince Leopold's birthday three weeks previous on December 10. These findings are based on court treasury receipts as well as a collection of published poetry, an occasional cantata instrumental part dated to Köthen, and a handful of parodied sacred works with new texts presented during Bach's first year at Leipzig, recycled from dance-infused secular serenades with vocal soloists.
Beyond the appealing pastoral works (BWV 66a, BWV 134a, BWV 173a, BWV 184a, BWV 194a), the overall Bach Köthen cantata picture is still greatly fragmented, with only remnants and suppositions based on scattered circumstantial and collateral evidence. The picture for the annual New Year's secular serenades, one quarter or six works, is the most substantial:
1/1/18 ?BWV Anh. 197 "Ihr wallenden Wolken"; lost, no text, incipt cited in Forkel estate 1819.
1/1/19 BWV 134a "Die Zeit, die Tag, die Jahre macht"; reconstructed from BWV 134, Hunold text
1/1/20 BWV Anh. 6 "Dich loben die lieblichen Strahlen der Sonne"; Hunold text only, no music
1/1/21 BWV 194a ?"Hochsterwünschtes Freudenfest"; no text, 6 dance arias in BWV 194
1/1/22 BWV 184a "Erwünschtes Freudenlicht"; 5 mvts. survive in BWV 184
1/1/23 BWV Anh. 8 title unknown ?= BWV 184a (repeat)
For the December 10 Prince Leopold Birthday celebrations, here is an accounting of the secular serenades:
12/10/17 existence uncertain
12/10/18 BWV 66a, "Der Himmel dach auf Anhalts Ruhm & Glück"; 4 mvts. survive in BWV 66
12/10/19 existence uncertain ("So bringt, Durchlauchtigster Leopold" Hunold text only)
12/10/20 BWV Anh. 7, "Heut ist gewiß ein gutter Tag"; Hunold text only
12/10/21 existence uncertain
12/10/22, BWV 173a, "Durchlauchster Leopold"; text poet unknown, survives complete as BWV 173
The picture of the 12 presumed sacred works for January 1 and December 10 cannot be determined other than one cantata: BWV Anh. 5, "Lobet den Herrn, alle seine Herrscharen" (Ps.130:21), presented on December 10, 1718. Only Hunold's seven-movement festival cantata text for a sacred service, presumably at the Calvinist Jacobi church, survives. Based on the survival of performing parts, four cantatas composed in Weimar may have been reperformed at Köthen sacred services on December 10 or January 1: BWV 21, "Ich hatte viel Bekümernis," Trin.+34 or anytime; BWV 199 "Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut," Trin.+11; BWV 172; "Erschallet, ihr Lieder...erklinget," Pent.; and BWV 132, "Bereitet die Wege, bereitet die Bahn," Adv. 4. Cantatas BWV 21 and BWV 172 may have been performed on Dec, 23, 1720, during Bach's Hamburg probe.
Also, movements from four Leipzig sacred cantatas may have been originated in Köthen, although the evidence is based solely on musical style. According to Friedrich Smend,< Bach in Köthen> (Eng. Ed. 1985), they are BWV 32, BWV 145, BWV 190, and BWV 193. Also, Christoph Wolff in <The New Grove Bach Family> 1983, p. 70) suggests that Bach may have been involved in the presentation of a sacred cantata in May 1719 at the dedication festival of the Köthen Lutheran Agneskirchke, based on a church bill. In addition, in the summer of 1721 and 1722, Bach may have been involved in festive cantata presentations at neighboring principalities: a homage cantata for Friedrich II of Saxe-Gotha, August 2, 1721; a church performance at the Schleiz Court of Heinrich XI Count von Reuss, around August 10, 1721; and a birthday cantata, O vergnügte Stunden, raphs from my BCW Article, "Bach's Dramatic Music: Royal Court at Köthen: Serenades" in: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Articles/HoffmanBachDramaII.htm.
Alfred Dürr (Ibid.: 21f) says the Köthen works "chiefly belong to the `serenata' type," "a species of mini-opera with modest dramatic action," with possible scenic representation. They consist almost entirely of dialogue for allegorical characters, "gods or shepherds, who praise the excellence of the prince and unite at the end in general good wishes." Musically, they "assume the lightly draped, cheerful character of their poetic texts. Dance-like melodies are often heard." The dramatic nature of the serenata, says Dürr, involves duet passages, musical design involving the choir division into concertists and ripienists in BWV 66a and BWV 134a, and recitative narrative introducing arioso lyrical reflection.
Significant is the element of dance in the five Hunold-texted works as well as another five composed after his death in the summer of 1721. The poet is unknown but the music survives in three works parodied as sacred cantatas in 1724 in Leipzig, Bach's first known efforts at text substitution. All five extant cantatas have dance-like character in their arias and closing tutti "choruses": BWV 194a, ?1/1/1723 (pastorale, gavotte, gigue, minuet); BWV 66a, 12/10/1718 (gigue-passapied, pastorale), BWV 173a, 12/10/1722 (gavotte, minuet, bourree, gavotte, polonaise), BWV 184a, ?1/1/1722 (minuet, polonaise, gavotte); and BWV 134a, 1/1/19 (gigue, minuet, gigue). Only some of the performing orchestral parts survive in the parts sets of the parodied sacred counterparts to BWV 184a and BWV 194a. Cantata BWV 194a (?1/1/1721), has a French Overture and four arias derived from an instrumental dance suite, as well as BWV 184a (?1/1/1722), and BWV 173a (12/10/22).
Another characteristic is the demanding music for both the vocal soloists and the orchestra. Wolff points out (JSB: The Learned Musician: 198) the solos and elaborate duets in the form of allegorical dialogues between Fame and Fortune in BWV 66a, and Divine Providence Time in BWV 134a. The lost pastoral dialogue, Cantata BWV Anh. 7 has three allegorical figures in Hunold's text: the shepherdess Sylvia, the huntsman Phillis, and the shepherd Thyrsis. This 10-movement work (no music survives) alternating recitatives and arias, including a terzett and a closing tutti, was probably performed on December 10, 1720, and was Hunold's last collaboration with Bach. Wolff also notes the challenging orchestral music for four-part strings and pairs of oboes or flutes (Bach's first use in place of recorders). There is no surviving music or texts for New Year's Cantatas BWV Anh. 197 (?1/1/1718 or 1722), and BWV Anh. 8 (?1/1/1723), a "Musicalisches Drama."
Secular Cantata BWV 134a is quite typical of Bach's earliest serenades, composed in Köthen. It begins with a plain recitative announcement instead of a sacred chorus dictum; the plain recitatives are dramatic dialogues, the arias are often derived from dances; and the entire ensemble unites only at the end in an interchange between the two allegorical figures and the four tutti singers in celebration in 3/8 gigue time.
NEW YEAR: BWV 134a, Die Zeit, die Tag und Jahr macht [Serenade, Chorus, Parodied]
1/1/1719, Prince Leopold of Köthen; formely titled "Mit Gnaden bekröne" (#2); score lost,|
text survives, parodied in BWV 134, "Ein Herz das seinen Jesum, Easter Tuesday, 4/11/1724 |
(#3 new); 134-II, 4/15/1727, 4/9/1728, 4/11/1730 (#5 new); 134-III, 3/27/1731 (#1 new, #3 altered)
Text: Hunold II serenata, dialog (Zeit & Göttliche Vorsehung, Time & Divine Providence)
Lit.: BG XXIX, Anh. incomplete (Waldersee 1881); NBA I/35 complete (Dürr 1964); Whittaker II:518-20; Smend, Bach in Köthen, 43-49; Dürr:809-815; Forces: TA, 4vv, 2 ob., str, bc; Movements: 3 arias (T, TA, A), 4 recits. (all TA), chorus
1. Rec. (TA): The time, the day and year make (parodied in 134-I-II/1
2. Aria (T, tutti): With gifts Heaven may crown (BWV 134-I-III/2, gigue)
3. Rec. (TA): House of the times (BWV 134-I)
4. Aria (TA, str): There strive, there conquer the future (BWV 134-I-III/4, minuet)
5. Rec. (TA): Remember now, fortunate land (not in BWV 134)
6. Aria (A): The times, Lord, have many pleasing hours (not in BWV 134)
7. Rec. (TA): Help, highest, help, that me, men praise (BWV 134-I/5)
8. Chs. (tutti): Resound, ye heavens (BWV 134-I-II/6), gigue).
The other two original Köthen New Year's serenades, BWV 194a and BWV 184a, cannot be reconstructed as neither the original text nor the basso continuo parts are extant. From the surviving music parodied in Leipzig, both originated as dialogue works with duets, while BWV 194a, like the complete BWV 134a, is an extended work with 11 movements involving six arias all set to dance forms and probably based on a Köthen orchestral suite beginning with a French Overture.
There is little evidence to help determine the fate of the five lost Köthen works, three of which have texts and would have been found in their subsequent parodied counterparts. Apparently Bach had no further use for these four serenades and a sacred cantata. Thus five Köthen serenades do survive in parodied form as sacred works in Bach's first Leipzig church year cycle for the festivals of Easter, Pentecost, and Trinity Sunday, as part of Bach's well-appointed church music, while the other five served their original purpose and were not salvaged by Bach the Borrower. Perhaps the works simply remained in the Köthen court library as property of their owner and dedicatee, where Bach visited in 1726 and 1729, and eventually were consigned to ashes by Prince Leopold's successor.>>
1 Cantata 134, BCW Details, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV134.htm. Score Vocal & Piano http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Scores/BWV134-V&P.pdf, Score BGA http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BGA/BWV134-BGA.pdf. References BGA: XXVII (Cantatas 131-140, Rust 1881), NBA KB I/10 (Easter Tuesday Cantatas Dürr, 1956), Barenreiter BC A-59, Zwang K-65.
2 Petzoldt, Bach Kommentar: Theologisch Musikwissenschaftlicke Kommentierung der Geistlichen Vokalwerke Johann Sebastan Bachs; Vol. 2, Die Geistlichen Kantaten vom 1. Advent bis zum Trinitatisfest; Internationale Bachakademie Stuttgart (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2007).
3 J. S. Bach, ed. Boyd, Malcolm (Oxford University Press: New York, 1999).
|Dürr, Alfred. Cantatas of J. S. Bach, revised and translated by Richard D. P. Jones (Oxford University Press, New York, 2005)
4 Dürr, Cantatas of J. S. Bach, revised and translated by Richard D. P. Jones (Oxford University Press, New York, 2005).