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Leó Weiner (Composer, Arranger)

Born: April 16, 1885 - Budapest, Hungary
Died: September 13, 1960 - Budapest, Hungary

The eminent Hungarian composer and pedagogue, Leó [Leo] Weiner, had his first music and piano lessons from his brother, but soon after starting, largely taught himself. He studied with János Koessler (Hans Kessler) at the Royal High School for Music in Budapest (Budapest Academy of Music) from 1901 to 1906, and while there won numerous prizes. He won international repute when his Serbade, Op 3 for small orchestra, written when he was only 21 year old, was awarded the Budapest Liptovarosi Kszino prize. The same composition won several other prizes, among them were the Franz Liszt Stipend, the Volkmann Prize, and the Erkel Prize. His 2nd string quartet received the Coolidge prize in 1922. Another, the Haynald Prize, was for some choral pieces. He had an interest in the well-known varieties of Hungarian folk music (at a time when the slightly older Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály were discovering the virtually unknown ancient true folk music of the country). A composition for two typically Hungarian instruments, the taragato (a folk variant of the clarinet) and the cimbalom (a hammered dulcimer or zither) called Hungarian Fantasy won him yet another award, the Schwunda Prize. All these works and several other of his student compositions were accepted for publication by national and international publishing companies.

Leó Weiner got a job as a repetiteur (i.e., one who coaches solo singers in the overall interpretation of the opera) at the Budapest Comique Opera (Vigopera) upon graduation. He won a special prize given in connection with the coronation of Emperor Franz Joseph, enabling him to visit and take musical studies in Vienna, Munich, Berlin, and Paris. He returned to the Budapest Academy of Music in 1908, now as a theory teacher. He remained a faculty member there for the rest of his life, being appointed Professor of Composition in 1912 and Professor of Chamber Music in 1920. He retired in 1957 (or 1949, according to AMG), but continued to teach there as professor emeritus until the end of his life. Weiner was particularly influental as a pedagogue, and he was one of the great chamber music instructors. Many outstanding Hungarian composers and performers studied with him, among them Antal Doráti, Foldes, Georg Solti, Starker, and Varga. To him primarily is credited the reputation of Hungarian musicians for their accuracy and depth of interpretation in chamber music, qualities that carry over into their solo and orchestral concert work as well.

As a composer, the Romantics from L.v. Beethoven through Felix Mendelssohn most strongly affected Leó Weiner's musical approach. Astute commentators have noted that his sense of orchestral color seems to relate to those French composers who were not notably affected by Wagner, especially Georges Bizet. This solid and conservative Romantic approach formed the basis of his style. To it was added, at about the time of the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and subsequent full independence of Hungary, a strong interest in Hungarian folk music. He did not research folk music, but he shared with B. Bartók and Z. Kodály their interest in Hungarian nationalism and did employ both the traditional gypsy-derived "Hungarian" folk music and some of his colleagues' discoveries, though his harmonic language was not affected by his use of this material. As Hungarian nationalism became twisted into an increasingly Fascist state in the late 1930's, the nationalistic element in Weiner's music declined, reappearing to lesser extend in the 1950's. Of a generation whose conservative composers became overlooked in music history, his works, which tend to be bright and entertaining, showed signs of revival at the start of the 21st century.

Leó Weiner was a skilled composer who produced a large number of very charming and conservative works. Among his notable compositions are three string quartets, two violin sonatas, five divertimenti for orchestra and a symphonic poem (but no symphonies), and numerous chamber and piano pieces. Most pianists will instantly recognize his lively Fox Dance.

Honors coming to him include a Coolidge Prize in 1922 for his F sharp minor String Quartet, the Kossuth Prize (1950 and 1960), and designation as an "Eminent Artist of the Hungarian People's Republic" in 1953.

Source: All Music Guide (Author: Joseph Stevenson); Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of 20th Century Classical Musicians (1997); Gdal Saleski: Famous Musicians of a Wandering Race (New York: Bloch Publishing Company, 1927)
Contributed by
Aryeh Oron (October 2009)

Leó Weiner: Short Biography | Arrangements/Transcriptions: Works | Recordings

Links to other Sites

Leo Weiner (Wikipedia)

Leo Weiner - Biography (AMG)

Bibliography

 

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Last update: żOctober 7, 2010 ż20:00:37